Since ancient times, Uzbekistan has been one of the outstanding states where is situated on the Great Silk Road and provided connection between the East and West. Nowadays, that ancient road with its new form connected variety of countries to each other. Currently, modernization of our country, creation of our economy, complex development of air lands are directly dependent upon improvement of transport and communication systems.
During the early years of independence, problems of improving transports and communication systems of Uzbekistan which are inherited from former regime would require proper solution.
These problems included followings:
Abolishment of the railways which go to Surkhandarya region and Karakalpahstan Republic through The Republic of Turkmenistan.
Constructing new roads with modern standards.
Reconstruction of all the roads.
Development of aviation infrastructure.
Creation of national transport structure of our Republic as well as strategic directions related to reformation of transport systems was determined in order to solve the problems which were mentioned above. All the branches of the sphere, railway, motorway, aviation transport experienced significant progression.
Measures regarding maintenance of motor and railways competitiveness was determined. The position of Uzbekistan in the Central Asia, development of her industry and other spheres and national program concerning improvement of economic relations with neighbour states from 1995 to 2010 were created. According to this program, in 1996, in the 100 km — length mountainous areas of «Tashkent — Andijan — Ush» main road, constructing «Qamchiq» and «Rezak» tunnels have been started. Reconstruction of «Almata — Bishkek — Tashkent — Termiz» and «Samarkand — Bukhara — Ashgabat — Turkmenboshi» roads has been completed an 340 — km — length road — «Kungrad — Beynav» which connected Uzbekistan to Russia and Kazakhstan had reached its finish. As a continuation of creativity measures in the Republic. Adoption of «transport and communication infrastructure development program» harmonically with programs regarding further improvement of local and general economy as well as industry, transportation, engineering communication infrastructures provided with the opportunity to subsequent made a progress. According to this program, in 2012, nearly 500 — km — length modern road was built as well as reconstructed successfully. Obviously, Central Asia is considered as on unseperatable of world — transport communication system. In this area, a great deal of measures concerning modernization of new international reads had been conducted by Uzbekistan.
In our country, creation of whole railway systems and its strategical directions usere determined. With this regard, during 1994–2001 700 — km — length «Navoiy — Uchkuduk — Nukus» railway was constructed. Consequently, since this railway line was built, a great deal of goods have been began to deliver to Karakalpakstan Republic and Khorezm region. «Guzar — Boysun — Kumkurgan» railway was built in order to make better improvement in railway systems of the Republic.On the 24th of August, in 2007, during the opening anniversary of «Toshguzar — Boysun — Kumkurgan», the President of the Republic Islam Karimovsaid: «We would be mistaken to give a huge importance to the fact that the railway of 223 km had been built in just 33 month which has been given into exploitation 2 years before the settled deadline». Not to mention the fact that all the work has performed by the ancient mountainous areas and wilderness. The main point and importance of what has been done is that uzbek nation once more demonstrated their capability and what they are able to do. This can be seen in the example of that railway traces were constructed on the mountaineers area which a consisted of hard stony cliff dusting the searching days of the winter as well as 6 new stations including Tashguzar, Dehkanabad, Akrabat, Darband, Kumkurgan and a stations with passenger’s platforms were built. Moreover, Objects which provide road safety, medical and educational establishments, water and gas supplying systems as well as social infrastructural constructions like them were built in all the stations. This fact indicates that the project has been carried out in accordance with modern standards. While «Toshguzar — Boysun — Kumkurgan» railway was being built such bridges, such as, railway bridges and read conductors and complex engineering constructions like them were created as an inclusion of it. Nine of these bridges are 1500ms above sea surface, It is an excellent evidence of that all of these measures are not seen in the history of Uzbekistan. Construction of this railway played significant vale in the development of the republic. This railway enabled to create railway transport communication system which is as much important as vans and connects southern region — Kashkadarya and Surkhandarya to other parts of the Republic. The railway increased an opportunity of reaching Indians Oceans and South East countries parts via «Transafghanrailway» route as well as the chance of improving transition role of Republic. As a result of implementation of the railway, about 2500 vacancies were created in order to provide road security and railway services, loading and etc.
At the new-organized establishments, particularly, in the field of small business and private commersion 4000 vacancies were created. New opportunities has been available to exploit natural resources. Socio-economical states of Kashkadarya and Syrkhandarya faced radical changes, their quality of life increased. Load and passenger transportation reduced to 170 km and 7 hours respectively. As a consequence, the amount of international and local loads grew. The fact that, 5 million load was transported last year, 4 million of it was international load proves above-mentioned claims. Since 2013, 18.5 km length «Angren-Pop» electrified railway construction has been begun to be built. The project generally takes $ 1,9 billion. As an conclusion of project, 2 tunnels are planned to be constructed. On September 2013, «Exinbank» bank of Chine invested $ 350 million for these tunnels. And $ 455 million contract was arranged with «Chine Railway Tunnel Group» company. These tunnels are expected to be the longest tunnels in Central Asia reaching 19,2-km-length. «Angren-Pop» electrified railway construction was aimed to be finished until 2016 March. In the Future, this railway in considered to connect not only Fergana valley with other parts of Republic but also it connects Europe with Chine thereby increasing transition ability of our country. Nowadays 104 km of this railway road has been completed.
During the years of Independence, the government paid more attention to electrifying affairs of railway. At that time, Khovos-Bekobod, «Khosovos-Jizzakh» and «Marokhand-Karshi» lines were electrified and Express trains began to work with «Samarkand-Bukhara-Toshkent» direction. Consequently, railway expenditures and of passenger and load transportation decreased to 20 percent and increased respectively. «Afrasiyab» which are electrified express trains and connects Tashkent to Samarkand for the first time started working in the Central Asia. In the integration of our country with world community and within the process of installation of useful cooperation with counties, citizen aviation has considerable role.
During the earliest years of independence, specific strategic direction were determined in order to improve citizen aviation of other motherland. As our President «Despite apparent difficulties, we paid most attention to the improvement of aviation taking into account that. It has great role in reaching world market». Complete Construction of airports and reformation of air traffic management had been carried out along with modernization of airplane parks according to modern standards.
In a short time, in the field of training experienced pilots who manages planes and technical assistants as well as airport transportation servicer, strong base based on international standards and modern technology was created in Uzbekistan. Plane which is flying with the attribution of «Uzbekistan Airways» started working in more than 40 airports which are situated in variety of countries. The deep modernization of aviation system is a crucial factor and gain its reputation widely. The affairs in the aviation system such as the providing of aviation and the high quality service of flights, the utilization of high –tech technologies for the aviation service widely as well as remarkable achievements in training skillful personal for aviation service were awarded several times by The International Aviation Organizations. During the independence -years Airline company provides with up-to-date aircraft. Particularly, airline company was completed with current planes such as «Boing-757», «Boing-764», «A-310», «RJ-85» by the government of Uzbekistan. «Uzbekistan Airways» company carries out about 75000 transit flight direction each year. In addition, Aero navigation services are being served for 320 planes of foreign companies in the center. This center is moving under the Air company and it is unique for providing services for aviation technics of last generation. In 2014 «Uzbekistan Airways» national air company joined «International Transportation Air Association» (IATA) which unified more than 270 air company through out the world. In «Uzbekistan Airways» air company 11 modern airports («Tashkent, Nukus, Samarkand, Bukhara, Urganch, Termiz, Karshi, Namangan, Andijan, Fergana, Navoiy»). Were modernized according to modern standards. Tashkent airport is the most prominent international airport in Central Asia. Bukhara, Samarkand and Urganch airports are considered as international airports. «Navoiy» international intermodal Logistic Center as well as «Angren» logistic Center has a high opportunity in our country.
It is important to mention that loading and distributing of variety products and the process of settling of them into the stores were done immediately in «Navoiy» international intermodal logistic center which is the only estimated in territory of United Nations Organization (UNO). «Navoiy» international logistic center which had been equipped with the most modern tools could be capable to accept all kinds of airliners irrespective of weather conditions. In 2011, well over 50 000 tons load was transported to different countries from this center.
In conclusion, reformation of transport system has been successfully carried out with a great deal of funds regardless of financial challenges and bad economic situation during the early years of independence. In general, during Independence, great affairs have been carried out in areas of improvement trans — communication system of Uzbekistan. Transport independence was provided and complex national transport system which connects all regions has been created. Transport system of our country is a crucial factor to improve relations with foreign countries.
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