Relevance of the Eurasian concept in the moment and the trend of development of Kazakhstan
Божбанбаев Б. М., Тургенбаева А. Ш. Relevance of the Eurasian concept in the moment and the trend of development of Kazakhstan // Молодой ученый. 2016. №8.9. С. 49-51. URL https://moluch.ru/archive/112/29233/ (дата обращения: 21.01.2018).
Kazakhstan is one of the components of Eurasia. Therefore, it is obvious that the fundamental idea of his existence and further development of civilization plan should be exactly the Eurasian idea. The term "Eurasia" was first introduced in 1883 by Austrian scientist G. Zyuzzom and was originally a geographical designation space. Later in the twentieth century, it takes on new meaning and importance. Ideas Eurasianism requires further study. Today the Eurasian ideas unite people various, sometimes diametrically opposite directions and orientations, Insert exclusively in their own understanding of these ideas, and interpret the concept of Eurasianism to serve their strategic interests and needs. We can safely It argues that a single denominator, integrating the whole spectrum currently not exist. In Kazakhstan and other CIS countries, the concept of Eurasianism embeds different meaning and given different interpretations in the context of its practical implementation. Idea of Eurasianism before 1989 did not rise, and a wide range was not known. Only indirectly Eurasian theme touched upon in the works LN Gumilyov and OO Suleimenov. Eurasianism today is one of the philosophical tradition, futuristic which focus, helps its active revival. Therefore, modern Eurasianism, keeping in touch with his classic incarnation of the early twentieth century, of course, significantly changed. We can say that today is represented by three Eurasianism main areas - academic, and political applications. The public humanitarian space is increasingly sounds like the term "Neo-eurasism" which actualizes Eurasian tradition, but given the fundamentally different historical environment, completely different trends, inspired by modernity . In recent years, in the social sciences, the term "glocalization" is used more often, which, unlike globalization, organically combines the general and specific features the development of peoples, aimed at the convergence of civilizations, but not in their identification. Notion "Globalization" was proposed to introduce in the tool sociologists renowned scientist Roland Robertson. Glocalization - it is the connection of globalization and takes into account national, regional and other features, which allows you to connect together common and specific requirements. Eurasians consistently uphold the principle of multipolarity, opposing unipolar globalization imposed atlantists. As the poles of this new world will not serve the traditional state, yet the new integration civilizational formations ( "great spaces"), incorporated in "Geo-economic zone" ( "geo-economic zones"). Eurasians consistently uphold the principle of multipolarity, opposing unipolar globalization imposed atlantists. As the poles of this new world will not serve the traditional state, and the new integration civilizational formations ("great spaces"), incorporated in "Geo-economic zone" ( "geo-economic zones"). Based on the principle of multipolarity, the future of the world is represented as an equal, friendly partnership of all countries and peoples, organized on the principle of geographic, cultural, and civilizational closeness of values in four geo-economic belts (each of their geo-economic zones is, in turn, from more "great spaces"): Euro-African belt, including three "large space "- the European Union, Islamic-Arab Africa, sub-tropical (black) Africa; Asia-Pacific belt, including Japan, South-East Asia and Indochina, Australia and New Zealand; Eurasian continental belt, including four "big space -" Eurasian Union "(which includes Russia, the CIS countries, plus some Eastern European countries), the country's continental Islam, India, China; American belt, including three "large space" - North America, Central America and South America. Eurasians believe "nation-state" in their present form as outdated the organization of spaces and peoples, typical of the historical period of XV-XX centuries. On place "nation-states" should come to a new political formation, combining Statement strategic alliance of large continental spaces with the complex, multi-dimensional system of national, cultural and economic autonomies inside. Certain features of the organization of spaces and peoples can be seen in the great empires of the past (the empire of Alexander the Great, the Roman Empire, etc.), and in new political structures (European Union, CIS). The current state today have had the following perspectives: 1) self-liquidation and integration into a single planetary space with US domination (Atlanticism, globalization); 2) opposition to globalization, attempting to maintain their administrative structures (formal sovereignty) in spite of globalization; 3) occurrence in supranational entities such as the regional ("great spaces") at Based on the historical, civilizational and strategic community . Eurasian idea suggests that economic structure is derived from historical and cultural aspects of the development of peoples and societies; consequently, in economic sphere are natural diversity, multi-structural, creative search, free development. Strictly control should only large-scale strategic the area associated with the provision of general security (transport, resources, energy, communications). All the other sectors of the economy should develop freely and naturally, in accordance with the conditions and traditions of the concrete autonomies where the economic activity takes place directly. Eurasian economy is based on the principles of subordination of the economy of higher civilizational spiritual goal; macro-economic integration and division of labor on the scale of "great spaces" ("customs union"); creation of a single financial, transportation, energy, industrial, information systems in Eurasia; differentiated economic borders with neighboring "great spaces" and "geo-economic zones"; strategic control center of the backbone industries in parallel a maximum exemption of economic activities at the level of medium and small business; organic combination of forms of management (market structure) with social, national and cultural traditions of the region, the lack of a uniform economic standard in medium and large businesses; maximum market release of goods and services. The life and destiny of the peoples - is an organic process, does not tolerate artificial intervention. The inter-ethnic, inter-ethnic issues should be resolved on the basis of their internal logic. Kazahstan should be given to each people of the land - a land of ancient civilization of the Eurasian continent. Here were the most important trade routes linking East and West. Historical and cultural associations of the ancient tribes that existed in the country for many centuries, is the basis of formation of the Kazakh ethnic group (Saks, Usuns, Huns, Kangly, Turks, Kipchak, the Kazakh Khanate). The land on which they were born and live in the Turkic-speaking peoples of Eurasia, including and Kazakhstan, according to each time period is called differently: Turan, Steppe Oguz, Dasht-i-Kipchak, Turkestan. In the 20th century Kazakhs got a historical chance to create their own independent state. Ideas revival of ancient traditions, rituals and customs, historical and cultural values were again particularly relevant and important for the young state. Socio-philosophical understanding of Russian, Kazakh, Eurasian mentality, it’s essential and functional characteristics due not only of scientific interest, but also a response to the challenges of the century. There were many such periods, when for one reason or another came huge mass of people in the movement in the history of Central Asia.
As a result of exchange of cultural values was accomplished, took place assimilation of old and formation of new ethnic groups and peoples. These global events are: the migration of Aryan tribes, the establishment of the Great Silk Road, Great Migration, the Mongol-Tatar invasion, movement in the Russian Empire, the October Revolution, the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45, the mass development of virgin land, the construction of BAM, the collapse of the Soviet Union and other . Since independence Kazakhstan continues a sharp discussion on the development of the national idea, uniting people, stimulating the progressive development of the country. This is an important methodological, political problem of the present. Intellectual elite of society many attempts to justify the need for a new national idea and to open its substantive basis. The views on the basic principles of the national idea boiled down to the following methodological aspects. This opinion: the re-establishment and consolidation of traditional, cultural, philosophical, landmarks, with a long history and the ousting of the Soviet past; introduction of "Western" values; woven traditional consciousness in the Western system of values . Leaders of Alash movement put forward the idea of national liberation, had a consistent policy on the protection of national interests of the Kazakh people. The idea of national self-determination for its people in the form of autonomy within a democratic federal Russian state reflected the position of Alash realism and inherent desire to modernize the Kazakh society based on a reasonable combination of traditionalism with the best achievements of Russian culture and human civilization. Continuity Alash ideas of today can be seen in the activities implemented by national intellectuals to revive the spiritual and cultural heritage of the people, in a dispute about the idea of the Kazakh discussions. In the modern sense of the Kazakh idea is this: the sovereignty of the titular ethnic group throughout the country, maintaining its state-role property of the people on natural resources, the role of the state language as a consolidating factor in the multiethnic society of Kazakhstan, maintaining cultural ties with compatriots in the near and far abroad, adaptation of repatriates.
In general, the Kazakh idea boils down to the problem of the survival of the Kazakh nation in the context of globalization, achieving competitiveness of the nation, the state. Kazakhstan has developed a unique multi-ethnic community, based on the initial synthesis of Turkic and Slavic ethno-social groups in further combination with other ethnic groups. Here there is the presence of one of the fundamental points of the Eurasian community, which have emphasized the founders of Eurasianism, – the diversity of peoples living together in one territory. President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev was the first among the leaders of post-Soviet states in March 1994, speaking to teachers and students Moscow State University, suggested the idea of integration as the only possibility to save in the context of globalization and cultural sovereignty to take a worthy place in the world community. He noted that today the awareness of cultural-historical community, the common roots of the Eurasian integration is becoming a powerful incentive in the XXI century. Nazarbayev noted that the high level of mutual understanding and cooperation between the peoples of Russia and Kazakhstan is based on the strong foundation of our common past, because of friendship and good neighborliness origins go back to the ancient history of the Middle Eurasia. It was then, in the mists of time, the total Eurasian matrix  .In Eurasian concept was laid down in the mentality of our people, extended NA Nazarbayev genuine integration, determines the unconditional observance of and respect for the sovereignty and independence of states and their genuine equality. In the context of dialogue East - West Eurasian initiative of Kazakhstan, is presented as a popular time of the doctrine of intergovernmental political, economic and cultural cooperation founded on the principles of tolerance, peace and stability in the region, the partnership mutually beneficial relationship. Kazakhstan is actively working on the translation into practice of integration processes in the Eurasian vector direction and in the direction of the Central Asian Union, taking into account the interests and priorities of the Turkic world. The idea of Eurasianism NA Nazarbayev recognized as an important ideological prerequisite for the development of the Eurasian countries in the region. Eurasian Union - is the most promising regional initiative, clearly thought out strategic plan for the XXI century. This mega-project, commensurate with the complex challenges of the present and the future  .Such a way, a revival of interest in Eurasianism in modern times by the factors: actual-political, economic and ideological.
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