Joint Research Archaeological Sites in Uzbekistan
Мисрбекова М. М. Joint Research Archaeological Sites in Uzbekistan // Молодой ученый. 2016. №8. С. 823-825.
Uzbekistan has a large number of historical landmarks. The world-famous masterpieces of medieval architecture of Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva are the subject of ongoing research of domestic and foreign experts. The architectural heritage of medieval, late medieval and modern times reflects the stages of development of our ancient cities. At the end of the XIX century. In a number of cities of Uzbekistan, for example, in the old Tashkent, Samarkand, Andijan, et al., developed areas with a European-style buildings. In these cities coexisted two parts, called «old» and «new» city. Building of European type, built in the new cities of the late XIX — early XX century, were designed by Russian architects in different architectural styles of the time. These sometimes highly artistic works of architecture to this day emphasize the uniqueness of the city's appearance. But, unfortunately, many of the buildings have been lost, and the whole architecture of this period is still not sufficiently explored and illuminated in the literature. Recently, increased public interest in Uzbekistan, tourists, domestic and foreign scientists to the modern architecture of the country, including the architecture of the turn of XIX — XX centuries. For example, Japanese architects chosen for their research Samarkand. Despite all the troubles related to the destructive influence of time, the events of the history of the Soviet period, when the demolished religious buildings, and other reasons, there is still preserved in its original form the largest number of monuments of architecture of the late XIX — early XX century [1. 68–74 s.]
To study the architecture of Samarkand XIX — XX century, in the autumn of 2004 in Tashkent signed a trilateral agreement on cooperation between the Samarkand State Architecture and Construction Institute (SamGASI), the University of Tokyo and the National Institute of Arts and Design named Behzad (NIHD), with the participation of professors, undergraduate and graduate students these schools. According to the agreement, it was scheduled three international research expedition Japanese architects and Uzbekistan. The head of the Japanese group and several students are members of modern architecture Asian Association — MAAN (modern Asian Architecture Network), which deals with the study of the architecture of the colonial period (late XIX — early XX century.) And modern architecture (XX — beginning of XXI century.) In the countries Asia. Before proceeding to the presentation of the expedition, briefly discuss the history of its formation, and is said to be a number of monuments «new part» of Samarkand. the new city of Samarkand plan was defeated about 150 years ago, after the 1868 Russian troops occupied the city. Professor VA Nielsen, in his work «At the root of modern urban planning in Uzbekistan», notes that the ancient city of the mid XIX century. It consisted of two main parts, the walled — the citadel and the old part of the city — Shahristan and Rabat. Among them in the south, southwest and east adjoined the gardens and fields. [2. 56]
But, unfortunately, the majority of residential buildings are in a bad, poor condition. The architecture of this period is part of the cultural and historical heritage of the Uzbek people, which must be preserved for future generations. Moreover, today, when Samarkand has 2750 years of history of development, it has become one of the most important tourist centers of Uzbekistan, the city of international importance, especially attracts tourists latitude band of its historical attractions. Therefore, among the priority task of restoration and preservation of architecture of the period. The University of Tokyo works are on the program «The Age of perfection» (Century of Excellence), aimed at creating optimal conditions for a modern architectural space and urban infrastructure while maintaining their original appearance. The competence of specialists working on the COE program, part restoration, reconstruction and preservation of the monuments of colonial and modern architecture. Program participants developed various methods of restoration and functional adaptation of monuments to the modern needs of urban residents, taking into account all aspects of their life. The works are based on modern technology, proper selection of materials, the use of modern techniques of restoration and reconstruction.
Since the autumn of 2004 at the moment, professionals and students of the three universities of two expeditions have been carried out. A team from the University of Tokyo led by Professor Shin Muramatsu were postgraduates, and Ho Eriko Tanigawa Ryuichi, as well as students Pei Chow Lee, Okamura Kentaro Kato Haruo Urata and Tomoko. From Uzbekistan group, consisting of about 15 people SamGASI under the leadership of Vice-Rector of the Institute, Doctor of Architecture Professor Muhammad Kasimovich Ahmadov were students Azamat Sharipov, Said Manno, Shahid Balgaeva and others. The group of Tashkent students from NIHD led by Dr. Architecture Mavlyuda Aminzhanovny Yusupova were graduate student Abdurizo Nozilov, undergraduates Otabek Bobokandov and Dilara Nizametdinova. The objective of the first expedition, conducted in November 2004, was to identify the buildings that have retained their original appearance and dignified status of a monument of architecture. Attention was also given, and the centuries-old trees, as they also form together with the architectural heritage of the urban environment and are the property of city residents. Evaluation of architectural structures was conducted by several parameters, including such as the quality and originality of the design and layout of the facilities, the degree of structural integrity and so on. D. As a result of studies of architecture have been collected data on more than 500 buildings of this period. By visual evaluation and analysis of buildings professors were selected 250 most valuable objects that are worthy of preservation and restoration. The next expedition, which took place in November 2005, was aimed at a deeper study of architectural monuments, carried out the natural measurements of buildings, blueprints were drawn up their plans. These investigations in 2005 were involved and other students from the University of Tokyo and SamGASI. In the summer of 2006 the third and final expedition in Samarkand. An interesting technique of foreign specialists employed at inspection facilities to recreate the historic appearance of the architecture of the studied time. It is based on a careful study of historical material from various types of sources at the same time as an important case study is to collect information from the questionnaires filled by interviewing the owners of buildings, people, or anything, or have ever heard about the history of these buildings. The questionnaire also contains information obtained by visual inspection that the state is the building of structures at this time, their value in historical and architectural terms, the building plan and the court, and their appearance today. No detail is overlooked, as even the most insignificant fact may eventually play an important role in the reconstruction of the original appearance of the picture of the building and the whole architecture of the time.
On the basis of the material collected the analysis and comparison of historical data and the fact that there is today to give an approximate picture of the historical and architectural Samarkand late XIX — early XX century. Because the architecture of the colonial period studied insufficiently, this omission proved encountered when carrying out scientific expeditions data. Carrying out such expeditions — a kind of filling in the gaps in the history of the study of architecture of Samarkand.
After research in Samarkand professors and graduate students of Tokyo University, SamGASI, NIHD and is connected to the study in 2005 and the Research Institute of Art will be developed and offered effective methods of restoration of buildings and reconstruction of buildings of European cities with a harmonious combination of the historical part of the Asian cities. With them will be a real return of the former appearance of the monument of architecture of the colonial period and the strengthening of structures methods of conservation with a view to their future conservation. In addition, projects for improvement of the city will be developed taking into account the adaptation of old architecture to modern needs. It is also planned opening of a site on the Internet, which will represent the research project and its results. Subsequently, in Japan based on the results of studies planned edition. Developments on the restoration and preservation of monuments of architecture of the period with the use of the proposed methods will be presented in a variety of funds involved in the preservation of the world cultural heritage. This UNESCO, MAAN, Aga Khan Foundation et al., who will be able to assist in the implementation of projects for the conservation of the architectural heritage of Samarkand. [3. 65 c]
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- Nielsen V. A. At the root of modern urban development of Uzbekistan (XIX — early XX century.). Tashkent, 1988. S. 56.
- In Vyatkin Afrasiab. Mound former Samarkand. (Archaeological survey) — Samarkand, 1926, 65.
- Alexey Arapov. Samarkand. Masterpieces of Central Asia. Tashkent. Sanat. 2004.
- Albaum LI Balalyk Tepe. On the history of material culture and art Tokharistan. Tashkent: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, 1960.