Phraseology is a science about phraseological units; i.e. stable combination of words. Phraseology is a treasure of a language, which reflects the history, the cultures, and way of life of any nation. Phraseology after express national character. The fund of English Phraseology is rich in national, international and borrowed, of terminological and non — terminological origin phraseological units as well as Uzbek phraseology.
Translating phraseological units is not easy matter as it depends on several factors: different combinability of words, homonymy and synonymy, polysemy of phraseological units and presence of falsely identical units, which makes it necessary to take into account of the context.
There are also different scientific approaches to the classification of English phraseological units. For instance, V. V. Vinogradov classifications is synchronic. It is based upon the motivation of the unit.
According to his classification, there are 3 types of phraseological units:
- phraseological fusions;
- phraseological unities;
- phraseological combinations.
It has been pointed out by N. N. Amosova and A. V. Koonin that classification, being for the Russian phraseology doesn’t fit the specifically English features.
A. V. Koonin’s classification is based on the functions the functions the units fulfill in speech:
Moreover, English Phraseological units can be classified as parts of speech. Here we have the following groups:
- noun phraseologisms denoting an object, a person, a living being,
e. g. bullet train, latchkey child, redbrick university, Green Berets.
- verb phraseologisms denoting an action, a state, a feeling,
e. g. to break the log-jam,
to get on somebody’s coattails, to be on the beam, to nose out, to make headlines.
- adjective phraseologisms denoting a quality,
g. loose as a goose, dull as lead.
- adverb phraseological units, such as:
with a bump, in the soup, like a dream, like a dog with two tails.
- preposition phraseological units. Such kind of classification is not seen in Uzbek phraseology. This is mainly because, there is not any kind of preposition in Uzbek. This part is the most essential difference English and Uzbek phraseology. For example:
e. g. in the course of, on the stroke of.
- interjection phraseological units,
e. g. «Catch me!», «Well, I never!» etc.
And also Uzbek scholars have been working on the branch of phraseological units. There is the branch of lexicology which studies idioms, phraseological units, words and group of words that are used in the language as ready- made units it is called in Uzbek. They are:
- phraseological units;
Phraseological units are usually called as idioms in Uzbek language. Phraseological units require followings:
- consist of two or more than two words;
- usually show transforming meaning;
- usually used as ready- made units of the language;
- the words that are parts of phraseological units can not be aparted;
- they are usually expressed or their definition is usually expressed by one word.
Yog’ tushsayalaguday-toza. It means in English «clean.pure».
Ilon yog’ini yalagan-ayyor. This phrase is used for the people who are deceiver.
Do’ppisini osmonga otmoq — Xursand.This phrase is used when people are pleased, glad.
But some of them can not be expressed by one word:
f.ex. bog’dan kelsa, tog’dan kelmoq- suhbatdoshining gapiga hech aloqasi yo’q gap so’z aytmoq.
Phraseologic units can be asked by one question and answered too.
Phraseologic units or idioms will be analyzed completely in the sentence but not separately word by word. One idiom functions as one syntactical unit. In Uzbek they can function all kinds of syntactical units:
f.ex. Bilamiz, bo’rk ol desa, bosh olmoq politsiyaning suygan metodi.(ega)
Direktor bo’lgandan keyin dimog’I shishib ketibdi. (kesim)
Ona degan yer tagida ilon qimirlaganini biladi. (to’ldiruvchi)
Siz ham o’sha daqqi yunusdan qolgan afsonaga ishonasizmi? (aniqlovchi)
Damini ichiga yutib, oyog’ining uchida yurib uyga asta kirdi. (hol)
Phraseological units have synonymic, antonymic and homonymic features as words do. F. ex. Ko’z yummoq
- E’tiborsiz qoldirmoq.
Phraseological units can be synonyms to words or to the phraseological units. If phraseological units are synonym to phraseological units so they are called phraseological synonym idioms, if phraseological units are synonym by words so they are called lexico-phraseological synonym idioms.
F. ex. Og’ziga talqon solmoq — og’ziga qatiq ivitmoq — lom-mim demaslik. Dunyoni suv bossa to’pig’iga chiqmaydi — beg’am, beparvo. Phraseological unities are also often synonyms of words in English. Such as:
e. g. to make a clean breast of — to confess; to get on one’s nerves — to irritate.
Antonymous idioms are the idioms that are opposite to each other.
F.ex. oq ko’ngil- ichi qora, yerga ursa ko’kka sapchiydi, qoy og’zidan chop olmagan.
Classic literature and philosophy provide lots of examples of phraseological units, that have entered modern languages and that are widely used in an instantiable sense.
There is another expression in Uzbek that we should know and remember but not mix these two expressions with each other. They are called «tasviriy ifodalar» in Uzbek. We can call them either paraphrases or «tasviriy ifodalar». Tasviriy ifodalar address the things, events, or goods not with their real name but with the other name, we paraphrase the things or events in order to express what someone or else has said or written using different words in order to make it shorter or clearer.
- Sh. Rakhmatullaev «O’zbek tilining qisqacha frazeologik lug’ati». Tashkent. 2007.
- Sh. Rakhmatullaev «O’zbek tilining izohli frazeologik lug’ati». Tashkent. 2013.
- Simpson J. A., Weiner ESC The oxford English Dictionary Oxford. Clarendon; 1989.
- McCarthy M., Carter R. «Language As discourse». Perspectives for Language teaching. London and New York, Longman.
- Peer, W. Van (2000), «Hidden Meaning», Contextualized Stylistics, Tony Bex, Michael Burke and Peter Stockwell, Amsterdam-Atlanta GA, Rodopi.