The present article deals with the problem of applying different communicative technologies to increase student motivation in teaching vocabulary. To intermediate and advanced level students. Communication skills play a very important role effective learning a FL there ore advanced communicative technologies are necessary to teach the students to communicate in English. The article is of some practical value, as the authors suggest some practical recommendations on haw to work with vocabulary.
В данной статье речь идет об использовании коммуникативных технологий при развитии мотивации студентов к чтению. Так как чтение играет очень важную роль при изучении иностранного языка наряду с изучением устной речи. Статья также представляет определить практическую полезность, так как автор предлагает ряд практических рекомендаций по развитии мотивации студентов при изучении словарного состава языка.
Taking into account the communicative power of vocabulary, language teachers make every endeavor to facilitate the learning process. In recent years, there has been a trend to shift the focus away from the teacher and make students more responsible for their own learning. That is attempts have been made to design more student-centered activities for intended lexical input. Furthermore although a teacher’s explanations and examples may seem of great help in vocabulary learning, they are unlikely to become a long-term part of the learner’s vocabulary store. Presenting words is only the tip of the iceberg. Vocabulary learning is effective when it entails active engagement in learning tasks. To ensure that learners get to know the new words, they will need plentiful opportunities to engage with the words and to put them to work in a variety of contexts. That is, the teacher’s responsibility does not only lie in helping learners meet some new words, but also in making sure that those new words are learned, stored, and recalled. In other words, the learner needs not only to learn a lot of words, but to remember them as well.
Therefore in promoting vocabulary learning, there is a need for an approach, in which all learners are required to make contributions. Most importantly, language students need the willingness to be active learners over a long period of time: otherwise, there will be a low chance of retaining vocabulary regardless of the quality of instruction. Moreover, in order to learn and remember new words, learners should take part in different task-based activities such as conversation making games, role-plays, narrative writing, or even speaking tasks which especially focus on helping learners develop and use words in different contexts by making the lessons enjoyable.
Vocabulary learning is a memory task, but it also involves creative and personalized use, that is, learning and using. S.Brumfit, K.Johnson argue that meeting a word in a number of different environments will help learners grasp its full meaning. Moreover, it will help the learner realize what part of speech the word is, that is, if it is a noun or a verb, etc. he further highlights the importance of progressive fashion that goes beyond rote memorization in vocabulary learning. Students need to practice regularly what they have learnt; otherwise, the material will fade away. This means that language teachers’ great responsibility is to create opportunities through which learners are exposed to the new items. W. R. Lee claims that repeated exposure to new vocabulary in a meaningful context accounted for the vocabulary gains for his subjects. J. Jalolov argues that the most effective way of improving incidental learning is by reinforcing it afterwards with intentional learning tasks.
H. G. Widdowson points out that writing in context is a tool for general second language improvement provided that it pays special attention to vocabulary use. Furthermore, students begin to consider the relevancy of learning language in relation to the amount of enjoyment and interest they receive through narrative writing.
The results of the study carried out by G.Makhkamova on English as a Second Language (ESL) learners’ vocabulary use in writing and the effects of explicit vocabulary instruction indicated that 13.19 % of recognized target vocabulary was productive in writing after reading instruction and comprehension exercise and before target vocabulary instruction. This increased significantly to 63.62 % after target vocabulary instruction and productive use of newly learned vocabulary. Thus, newly learned productive vocabulary increased significantly in an immediate writing task after explicit instruction.
Finally, goals must be meaningful to the individual. The addition of word games to vocabulary instruction can boost student motivation and help them engage with vocabulary cognitively, which results in improvements in acquisition rates and deeper levels of processing W. R. Lee.
In his research on the effect of games on EFL learners’ vocabulary learning strategies. G.Makhkamova found that games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in different ways. First, games facilitate the retention of new words by bringing in relaxation and fun to learners. Second, they usually involve friendly competition and keep learners interested.
Speaking tasks such as split information tasks, class presentations, ranking activities and problem solving discussions are not usually thought of as having vocabulary learning goals. One of the reasons for this might be the fact that planning vocabulary learning as a part of a syllabus using productive, unpredictable activities in the discussion group seems very difficult. Drawing on recent research, it can be found out how a vocabulary learning goal can be effectively designed into many speaking activities. J.Jalolov (1991) provides an overview of interactive discussions regarding target vocabulary and maintains that discussions include identifying what the word means (semantics), how the words is used in sentences (syntax), how the word is divided into minimally significant units of meaning (morphology), and how the words can be used in a communicative context 9pragmatics).
Huong detected three categories: (1) the students provided examples of the words that they had learned; (2) joint learning of vocabulary in which the students shared their knowledge of words; and (3) collective memory in which group members through interaction helped other members in recalling and remembering words.
J.Jalolov reported that the students perceived the importance of vocabulary in the process of using English and not only were they engaging with words, but they were also using each other’s vocabulary knowledge. As the review of literature reveals, recent developments in learning vocabulary provide new opportunities for the application of many activities into education.
Research in learning vocabulary in a second/foreign language is well documented. However, no study has investigated the degree of the effectiveness of different post-teaching activity types in terms of learning vocabulary.
In a large class, it is easy for students to feel alienated. If they feel that the teacher does not know them or care whether or not they learn, they will usually put very little effort into participating actively in the learning process. Some ways to motivate students of different language levels and ages in a large class are described below.
Adapt the material according to the language level, age, and needs of students. In multi-age, multi-level classes, plan a variety of activities to appeal to as many students as possible.
Develop sequential activities with several steps so that higher level students complete more while lower level students work at their own pace. When preparing worksheets, add some optional section for more advanced students.
Use higher level students as assistant teachers or monitors who can help and support the lower level students.
Prepare activities that allow students to show their different skills and interests.
As much as possible, be available to students before and after class to establish personal relationships, so that they feel that they are individuals in the eyes of the teacher, not merely part of the herd.
Make students aware of the goals of each learning activity. If they understand why they are doing it, they will participate more willingly.
Make all activities success-oriented. Students will participate willingly in tasks that seem achievable. When they have confidence in their success, they will be motivated to try.
- “Чет тилларни ўрганиш тизимини янада такомиллаштириш чора-тадбирлари тўғрисида”. Тошкент ш., 2012 йил 10 декабрь, ПҚ-1875-сон
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- Common European Framework of reference
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