In this article reveals about historical and cultural development of social education in Russia. In article the main stages and key features of formation of social education in Russia, unique experience, and also a role of public institutes and private initiatives (patronage), the territorial movement in formation and training for needs of the social sphere are analyzed. The author carried out the analysis of specifics of the processes which had impact on process of an institutionalization of social work.
Keywords:philanthropy, social education, patronage activity.
In Russia the way of historical development has social education. Need of the appeal to research of the Russian history of social education is caused by importance of disclosure of theoretic and methodological approaches of formation and development of a domestic education system, and also role of public and private initiatives, the territorial movement in formation of both the state, and non-governmental sector on preparation of qualified personnel for needs of the social sphere.
Such researchers as E. Maximov (A historical and statistical sketch of charity and public contempt in Russia were engaged in studying of this perspective. SPb., 1894), A. Stog (About public contempt in Russia. SPb., 1818), E. Golubinsky (History of the Russian church, 1900), N. M. Karamzin (History of the state Russian, 1816–1829), S. M. Solovyov (History of Russia since the most ancient times. SPb., 1851–1879).
The history of social education in Russia is based on traditions of mercy and voluntary charity, on spiritual and moral ideals, on extensive materials of the social and educational. The system of social education in Russia developed throughout centuries. Adoption of Christianity in Russia promoted creation of special schools for priests, construction of temples and monasteries. As researchers of history of social work K. V. Kuzmin and B. A. Sutyrin note: «The Stoglavy Cathedral in 1551 decided to expand a network of schools on the cities, having charged it to clergy» [2, S. 386]. And, except divinity in these schools such disciplines as grammar, rhetoric, philosophy were taught, the Greek and Latin languages and this program of training put a basis for emergence. Not less interesting fact consists that «in 1654 the medical school for the of children was open and as researchers consider, the program was calculated on 4 years and corresponded to programs of medical faculties of the western universities» [3, S. 586].
During Petrovsky reforms problems of a professional beggary are stabilized. The «About Measures of the State Contempt Decree» project opened approaches to social education on the basis of the state requirements as among the major national objectives localization of a professional beggary by means of training of beggarly children was, orphan children and foundlings. They were trained in special crafts: silk, cloth, hour, etc. Special schools and almshouses were under construction [2, S. 255].
The new stage of social education was connected with activity of educational houses in Russia. I. I. Betsky, having examined system of educational houses in Milan, Lyon and Paris, I offered the project of the Russian educational houses. The first such house was open in Moscow in 1764, and in St. Petersburg — 1771. In 1801 the empress Maria Fiodorovna with the assistance of P. A. Demidov in St. Petersburg founded Povivalny institute, in it girls from poor families were trained. The emperor Alexander I specially invited doctor V. Gayui who in 1806 opened the first institute for blind in which various sciences, crafts and music were taught. In 50–60 XIX century expansion of schools for persons with limited physical capacities, in many respects thanks to Maria Fiodorovna's empress and her Imperial Philanthropic society was noted. Their merits included the organization of orphan schools, development of female education, creation of special houses — diligence. The wide circulation in Russia of patronage and philanthropists on which means teaching and educational establishments opened was distinctive features of this period.
Cancellation of a serfdom and the subsequent territorial reforms set the new tasks for social education in Russia. In territorial experience the integrated approach to statement of national education that found the reflection in organic connection of the solution of such important tasks as is of special interest: broad construction of school buildings, formation of teacher's shots, introduction of progressive educational system, creation of a network of cultural establishments: libraries, book warehouses, folk theaters and people's houses.
Were created by the territorial a network of drugstores, medical assistant's and medical courses are open; the medicine began to enter the country environment [4, S.126]. In 1860–1880 the large charitable organizations in Russia (Department of establishments of the Empress Maria, Imperial Philanthropic society, the Russian society of the Red cross) continued work with «social» shots therefore, for example, the essential increase in the courses operating in the country on training of the people giving social help was observed. Relying on the educational and methodical and practical experience, Society of the Red cross intensified development of a network of establishments of sisters of mercy in the majority of provinces of the country. So, in Aleksandrovsky, Nikolsky, Pokrovsk, Pavlovsk and other communities of the Red cross-plans of training of sisters in which theoretical and practical knowledge closely intertwined were developed. Sisters of mercy were trained according to special programs which included both a theoretical, and practical training on care of patients and wounded. As researchers note, by the beginning of World War I more than 100 communities were, and to the middle of 1917 was to 30 thousand sisters of mercy. The education program was made, besides subjects of a medical profile, discipline of social and religious character where skills on rendering psychological assistance took root, to development of feeling of compassion and a donation, trained in technologies of the social help. Therefore, the movement of sisters of mercy in the country developed not only as the public phenomenon, but also became more and more professional .
At early stages of development of system of vocational training of shots in Russia also foreign experience was actively used. For example, in 1910 in Copenhagen 5 International congress concerning public and private contempt in which the Russian delegation under the leadership of G. Witte took part took place. It is necessary to specify that the final resolution of the congress noted need of adjustment of system «correctly put the hozhatykh», having presented them possibility of training at special schools of public contempt.
Social education develops in the Soviet period within social security system where it was carried out not only reproduction of shots for this branch, but also the network of residential care in which education and training of children and adults was carried out developed. Certainly, broad changes in the 1990th in economic, socio-political, cultural life of Russia demanded conscious and system approach to problems of social education. In this regard, first of all, there are actual priorities of development of system of training of specialists of the social sphere, that is the professionals solving problems of rendering the address, target help to various groups of the population, socially unprotected layers (to the unemployed, children — disabled people, orphan children).
For rather short term of the existence of specialties and the directions of professional education (training in system of higher education is begun in 1991) training of specialists of a social profile assumed an impressive scale. Now social education assumes training of experts of the social sphere in the basic rules of activity of the person in society, development of social culture, formation of social thinking and action, culture of social feelings and culture of the social organization. Actively the system of additional education of workers of the social sphere develops, training of teachers of chairs, higher education institutions, faculties of a social profile is conducted. First of all, refer to the main objectives of social education: achievement of social justice and social and economic stability, prevention of social problems; development and deployment of innovative technologies of personal realization; realization of social technologies in social establishments, etc. Among the main tasks of social education allocate establishment of «balance» of needs of the person and society that is reached by promotion of priority values in the form of observance of interests of the person .
Thus, we come to a conclusion that social education in Russia has long history, representing sociocultural system, adapting for various changes of a situation, opened to innovations in the social sphere of activity of society.
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