Today, in the educational and psychological sphere the common concept of «technology» has come to us with the development of computer technology; because of it Pedagogy has been looking for ways to achieve good results working with a group or class, and constantly improving their tools, methods and forms. In teaching, there are always new approaches and attitudes to the organization of training and education. Today, the tendency of teachers to improve the quality of education sounds more and more insistently, the call for the transition to teach using educational technology allows the implementation of different methods in practice. Therefore, one of modern school design techniques I use is called the methodology of the project. This technique is associated with projects actions of teachers and students.
The design methodology is highly communicative and based on the cyclical organization of educational process, that is, the learning process is planned in cycles, which are divided into beginning, middle and final parts. This gives me the opportunity to design the result of my personal training activities and my students at the end of each stage of education. In my classes this can occur in a variety of forms summarizing all the work.
Experience on the technology project methodology for several years makes it possible to analyze and answer the question: «How does the technology affect learning a foreign language».
Naturally, as a teacher of foreign language I am interested in the fact of how technology affects the results and the quality of students' knowledge. Tests have been carried out controlling the sections in conducting projects in selected groups of students. When testing reading skills (the viewing, complete understanding, information retrieval) the level of preparation of students for this type rises the interest to read the extract information, to understand and identify the main idea, to compile the data. As a result of the control sections, the tests can be concluded that the students become more competent in use of grammatical structures and phenomena. I think that greatly expands the vocabulary in speech.
For several years I spent the usual manner lessons in a class of parallel projects and the method in another class of the same parallels. The results are obvious: design methodology not only enables students to go more and deeper into the topic, but also greatly enhances their overall outlook, teaching communication, the ability to produce independently and select the desired material enables to develop not only the collective creativity, but also the individual talents and abilities of students.
This technique allows to realize not only educational tasks before me as the teacher of a foreign language, but also up-bringing responsiblities Students can take a fresh look at yourself and the realities of their daily life, history and culture of his country and, of course, to find out «from first hand» what interests them about life in the country of the target language. All this, finally, is intended to facilitate a better understanding of Uzbekistan's role in an increasingly interdependent world, the formation of an active civic stand of students and maximize the development of individual abilities and talents of each.
1. What is the project?
Experts identify the following skills that contribute to a successful mastery of project activities: — intelligence (the ability to work with information from text (highlight the main idea, to search for information in the foreign language texts), to analyze information, make generalizations, conclusions, etc., the ability to work with a variety of reference materials); — Creativity (ability to generate ideas, which require knowledge in different areas, the ability to find not one, but several ways to solve problems, the ability to predict the consequences of a decision); — Communication (the ability to debate, to listen and hear your interlocutor, to defend his point of view, supported by arguments, the ability to find a compromise with the interlocutor, the ability to concisely express their thoughts).
What is the project? The project — an opportunity for the students to express their own ideas in a convenient form they creatively crafted: making collages, posters, notices, research with the subsequent registration, etc. In the process of project work the responsibility for training rests with the student himself. The most important thing is that the child, not the teacher determines that the project will include, in what form and how it will take place, the presentation.
Why do we need a method of projects? To teach students independent, critical thinking. To learn to navigate the information space. Meditate on the basis of knowledge of the facts, the laws of science, to make informed conclusions. Make their own reasoned decisions. To learn to work in teams performing various social roles.
When the project work, which can be presented in oral and written form, should be followed, in my opinion,by the following recommendations:
First, because the project work allows students to express their ideas, it is important not too obviously to control and regulate the school, it is desirable to encourage their independence.
Second, the design works are mostly open, so there can be a clear plan for their implementation. Some additional materials can be entered in carrying out project tasks
Third, most of the projects can be carried out by individual students, but the project will be the most creative, if it is done in groups. This is especially important, for example, the selection of images for the collages and other works of this kind. Some projects are carried out on their own at home, some of the design specifications of the lesson are spent on the other lesson in the classroom so it is advisable to keep the old magazines, scissors, glue. The third recommendation underlines the importance and effectiveness of educational cooperation
The project is implemented in a specific pattern:
1. Preparation of the project.
Getting to the creation of the training project should comply with certain conditions:
— First, study the individual abilities, interests and life experiences of each student.
— Choose the theme of the project, to formulate the problem, offer students an idea, discuss it with the students.
2. Organization of the project participants.
Initially, form a group of students, who in front of each has its own task. Allocate responsibilities, take into account the propensity of students to logical reasoning to the formation of the design of the project work. The formation of the group in their structure must include students of different sexes, different performance and different social groups.
3. Implementation of the project.
This step is connected with the search for new, more information, a discussion of this information and its documentation, the choice of the project (this can be drawings, crafts, posters, drawings, quizzes, etc.). Some projects are done at home on their own, others require assistance from the teachers in the classroom. The main thing — not to suppress the initiative of students and respect any idea to create a situation of «success».
4. Presentation of the project.
All the finished decorated material should be presented to classmates to defend the project. The performing and presenting of a project is important to analyze the proposed material. So, the students can havea special notebook for their projects. Projects can be performed on single sheet or stapled together to form an exhibition installation. Groups can compete with each other. Project assignments carefully calibrated so that students can carry out their English. Encourage first draft, and then clean copy.
5. Summary of project work.
The number of steps — steps from accepting the idea of the project prior to its presentation depends on its complexity.
By the nature of the finished product of project activities, the following types of projects in the field of foreign language learning
Structural and practical projects, such as a diary of observations, the creation of the game and its description.
Play — role projects, such as acting out fragments of the lesson at school (program practice in speaking, grammar, phonetics), a dramatization of the play (the program practice speech, the children's literature of the country the language is spoken).
Informative-research projects, such as «The study of the region of a country», «Guide to the target language country» are included in the program of international studies, such as on «New Zealand»
Scenario projects — a scenario extracurricular activities for school or separate class
Creative works — free literary composition, literary works are translated into the native language (spoken language practice program, children's literature, the language is spoken.
Publishing projects — wall newspapers, materials for stands.
The project involves the activation of the students, they have to write, cut, paste, rummaging through directories, to talk with other people, look for photos and pictures and even make their own record on a cassette tape. Finally, students with different levels of language training may be involved in project work according to their capabilities. For example, a student who is not fluent enough in English, may well draw.
The primary goal of education is the current research surrounding life. The teacher and students are together in this way, from project to project. The project, which the students perform should call the enthusiasm which carries them and comes from the heart. Any action performed individually, in a group, with the support of the teacher or other people, children must plan, execute, analyze and evaluate independently.
Tell a friend about yourself and the world around us in English, students discover the value of English as a language of international communication. They may be in a situation where they need to describe their family or city to foreigners, and project work prepares them for it.
Basically, the majority of projects carried out during the final lesson, when the results of its implementation, I appreciate the students mastering specific educational material.
Getting to the introduction of project-based educational activities in school practice is necessary to remember that along with the benefits of the work of the project has certain difficulties.
- The most difficult thing for the teacher in the design — it is the role of the independent consultant. It's hard to resist the tips, especially if the teacher sees that the students «do not go there». But it is important in the consultations only respond to questions arising from school. Perhaps a seminar-consultation for collective and generalized review of the problems arising from a significant number of students.
- It's a hard thing to evaluate the project work. Methods for evaluation of it conflict with the official nomination procedure for the assessment of student work. Obviously, the language — this is only a component of the project. It is a mistake to evaluate the project only on the basis of linguistic orientation. The assessment should be put for the project as a whole, its multifaceted nature, the level of manifest creativity, clarity of presentation.
- There is always a risk to overestimate the results of the project and to underestimate the process. This is due to the fact that the assessment of the project is put on the basis of the presentation of his product. To make it the most objective and comprehensive, participants must pay attention to the compilation, and teachers — for the subsequent analysis of the portfolio of the project («project folder»). Properly compiled portfolio reveals the entire course of the project after it has been completed.
- In carrying out the research project it is important to avoid its transformation into an abstract. Of course, part of the abstracts is usually present in any study, and learn to write essays needed. But to create in children an idea of the scientific activity as a compilation of the thoughts of others is unacceptable. Few explore some work and competently express their content — designer must develop and present their own point of view on the sources of information to determine the purpose of the study and its methodology.
- One of the most difficult questions is the implementation of upbringing tasks in the project activities. In the traditional system of education questions of moral education are considered, as a rule, with the intellectual side: moral principles should be properly presented and understood. The philosophy of education based on the project activities, the basic moral principles — mutual assistance, devotion to duty, a sense of responsibility for decisions — based on the action, they should be 'lived'.
- Possible linguistic mistakes: because of using the additional information the students found in Russian sources. Therefore, the repetition and generalization of necessary grammatical material should precede the development of projects, and the projects themselves should be developed at the final stage of work on the subject, where it creates the conditions for the free improvisation to work with language and speech material.
- Andreeva L. N. Social Psychology. — M: Publishing House of the Enlightenment, 2004. –P.43.
- Polat E. S. Typology of telecommunication projects — Science and School — number 4, 1997.
- Winter V. N. Pedagogical Psychology. –M.: Publishing House of Education, 2004. — P.:217, 249, 316.
- Zotov Y. B. Organization of a modern lesson. — M:Publishing House of the Enlightenment, 2006. — P.37.
- Kitaygorodueva G. A. Method of intensive training — M.: Education,2003. — P.152
- Kolker Y. M., Enalieva T. M. Methods of teaching a foreign language. –M.: Publishing House of the Enlightenment, 2003. — P.62