Abstract.It is known that to realize oneself, exhibition of national consciousness and thought, spiritual-educational relationship among generations are shown by language. All the respectable features, at first, occupy human’s hearts by unrepeated fascination of mother’s song and mother language. Mother language is the nation’s spirit.
This paper will be concerned with focusing on components and principles of linguistic culture. We appeal that the study of culture as well as linguistic culture in foreign language teaching can be traced throughout the history of the development of methods of educational thought, however, this process is not always considered a priority and urgent. Currently, however, the new educational standards emphasize the need to integrate the culture of the learning process in a language program.
The main problem is that there is a system which allows the teacher to clearly define which aspects of culture, when and how to teach. In addition, this is a problem not only for our country; many teachers abroad are experiencing similar difficulties. It is thought by some researchers, for example, B. Galloway describes there are four approaches, which the most common approaches to learning culture:
- The approach of “Frankenstein” (flamenco dancer from this culture, cowboy from another traditional food from a third);
- Approach the four “F” (all components in English begin with the letter “F” — folk dances, festivals, fairs and food);
- Approach a tourist guide (monument, river, city);
- Approach “between times” (accidentally encountered information of cultural nature, often reflecting the profound differences between cultures).
These approaches in varying degrees are implemented in the classroom. Native textbooks often act as a “tour guide”, providing country information on the main English-speaking countries. Foreign exchange and seek to show familiarize students with different cultures, and there is reflected the approach of “Frankenstein”, for example, when studying the topic of “food”, students learn the national dishes of different countries, cultural models of table manners and customs of different countries and cultures. The teachers often use the latter approach — “in between times” when a chance encounter vocabulary or interpreted realities, and the students' attention is drawn to the significant differences between cultures.
In the study of culture, you must first master the language of the culture — verbal, sign, graphic, imaginative, formalized, all those systems that express the “objective world” of this culture. The approaches presented above do not fully disclose all facts of cultural reality of the country, so it is necessary to expand the included components. According to some researchers, the following aspects of the culture of the target language should be integrated into the practice of his teaching:
1) Aesthetic aspect — Culture with a capital letter or youth with disabilities culture (music, literature, art);
2) Sociological aspect — family, home, work, tradition, interpersonal relationships;
3) Semantic aspect — the conceptual framework presented in the language to warrant the processes of perception and thinking;
4) Pragmatic aspect — background knowledge, social and paralinguistic skills, which, combined with language skills contribute to communication.
Therefore, in this paper we consider culture as a system that includes four components listed above and is a universal system of values, traditions, behavior, thinking, lifestyle, joint activities. As the strategic aspects in developing linguistic culture include the following:
• Planning the use of cultural material should be carried out in the same way as planning language material;
• The introduction of cultural material should be done in the framework of any case studies, combining them as much as possible with the grammar material;
• Improving all types of speech activity (reading, listening, speaking and writing) in the study of cultural information, thus avoiding the presentation of factual information in the “lecture-story” form;
• Use of cultural information when introducing a new vocabulary, focusing on student’s connotation of linguistic units and grouping vocabulary by significant cultural groups;
• To prepare students for independent study of a foreign culture, education for their national and tolerance and respect for this culture.
Contrasting how principles of teaching consists of comparisons with culture, different artefacts, socio-facts, mento-facts. Under artefact imply subjects, create people’s socio-facts — this technique, which one organizes his own society and takes each other, а mento-facts — this idea, belief, value of the society. Teaching foreign language on the basic principle contrasts relations between common and different perceptions. Especially, clearly this shows by examination lingual and cultural picture of the world.
Interdisciplinary and inter-aspectual coordination is essential for any discipline, but for the process of mastering foreign languages, it is fundamentally important character. If communication occurs linguo-cultural approach, language learning disciplines such as sociology, ethnology, psycholinguistics, cultural anthropology, cultural studies, cultural history, cognitive linguistics, geography, etc. The principle of interdisciplinary coordination opens the possibility of building a learning system approach, taking into account the content of related disciplines.
Regarding methods of teaching foreign languages, there are special classification learning tools. G. V. Rogova groups them into non-mechanical (board, magnetic board, and flannel-graph) and mechanical (tape recorder, projector, TV, video equipment, radio, language lab).
In our work, we just rely on the use of complex tools in developing teachers’ linguistic culture, so it is necessary to define the requirements that it satisfies. Thus, it is suggested the following general requirements for training facilities:
- The selected teaching materials for classes should match the content of teaching material and lesson objectives;
- Need to be considered when selecting the specific features of each tool and clearly define their functions in the solution of educational problems;
- Comprising a set of teaching materials should promote enhanced learning activities of students in class;
- A set of tools should be included in the organic structure of the lessons and the learning process.
Among the many training materials isolated instructional books, visual aids, informational materials to the audiovisual training, methodical software computer technology, special equipment, teaching materials, teaching aids and laboratory equipment.
In conclusion, we have identified educational game activities, sources of print and audiovisual materials, interdisciplinary and inter-aspectual coordination as components and principles of complex pedagogical tools for developing linguistic culture.
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