As we know, for several decades in the developed countries innovations have been recognized by the third factor of economic growth that prompted countries and enterprises to start innovative race to be the first in market and open new markets. In a global business environment, the principle of "Updating or Die" is a priority for the development of entrepreneurship, which makes enterprises searching for new sources of competitive advantage constantly. As the researchers note, the priorities of profit evolutionary change. In the 50s-60s years high, profit based on performance, in 70-80 years. On quality and since 90s it has begun to provide innovation growth and sustainable development of companies.
According to some researchers, a necessary condition for the transition of the national economy to an innovative way is to develop civilized market relations. Innovative market — a combination of market relations, emerging in the process of creation, development, transfer and use of technologies, products and services. World innovation market began forming in the 1970s. In addition, has acquired a global character a long time ago. Its development began actively after the technology transfer from parent companies affiliates ceased to be an effective form for the rapid diffusion of innovation. . Market relations provide a more flexible and equitable dissemination of new knowledge and technologies.
The modern world scientific thought defines innovation literally as "first use" of a new idea or approach. Accordingly, new knowledge serves as the object of exchange, expressed in explicit or implicit form. New knowledge is the result of researches, the acquisition or use of special qualifications or skills. Formal knowledge objectified symbolic means of language, embrace the knowledge that can be described, informed others. Such knowledge may be registered as patents for. Implicit knowledge can include working skills, skills of communication, culture of organization and, as a rule, is inseparable from the source — specific person — a small group of the inventor. In this connection, the scientific activity as cognitive (cognitive) activity is a prerequisite for innovative product offerings to the market, having the aim of obtaining new knowledge.
In theory, innovation can be divided depending on the nature of the changes and the impact of the commercial performance. Thus, the Oslo Manual identifies four types of innovation encompasses a wide range of changes specific to the activities of firms:
Grocery that involve significant changes in the properties of the produced goods and services, including both brand-new products and services, and significantly improved products among the of already existing
Process innovations — significant changes in methods of production and delivery
Organizational innovations that are relevant to the area of implementing new organizational methods: changes in business practices, workplace organization or external relations of the company, etc.
Marketing innovations, which include the implementation of new marketing methods: changes in design and product packaging, promotion and placement, methods of setting prices for goods and services and etc.
Marketing as a science that studies the various aspects of the exchange, in our view, mostly fits the issues standing in front of the national innovation sphere. The marketing management concept aims to subjects search for optimal solutions in the process of knowledge generation, the most satisfying all participants. Application of the concept of marketing in the aspect of cooperation is intended to contribute the development of new approaches to manage of innovative processes aimed at optimizing the satisfaction of their interaction product.
It should be noted that the role of marketing in innovation largely discounted. Using it as a tool of influence on consumers and other market participants, Focuses Company on solving problems unilaterally that can lead to negative consequences. However, marketing can and should be seen as a tool for creating value in the sphere of innovation, which involves the formative chains that provide the whole process of product innovation.
In modern marketing theory at the forefront is not only demand creation innovative technologies, but also the necessity of formation effective collaboration with partners and customers in the process of creating and implementing innovative product. Process taking place in the organization and management of the modern innovation promote the role of marketing. The following processes can be taken into consideration:
- Increasing the speed of spreading of innovations and capabilities of copying at the expense of development of information technologies and the emergence of additional technical features reduce the importance of patents as a means of protection of intellectual property and stimulate the search for new funds;
- The need to engage in an innovative process a significant number of partakers, including those from different spheres and sectors, concerning its more intellectual component and the technological complexity, which leads to the importance of coordination and of the interests of participants;
- Declining the importance of product innovation for consumers because of their limited perception when they manufactured too often, the problem of recycling of old products appears;
- The impact on the process of creation and acceptance of innovations state structure and public organizations, which largely contribute or hinder its successful implementation;
- An active establishment and development of market of intangible products (services, information, knowledge) that determining application of new methods of promotion and marketing.
Since successful innovation includes taking a new product to market, other Intellectual Property(IP) tools become very relevant. Above all, trademarks and industrial designs play an important role in the marketing process. These enable consumers to identify a product/service of a particular company and enable them to distinguish the product from other similar product.
A trademark is a useful tool in launching new product segments or entirely new products, technologically based or non-technologically based through brand extension. In addition, trademarks can be very effective in penetrating new markets. Honda, for example, took advantage of its reputation in motorcycle engineering to penetrate the US car market. Trademarks are also useful in extending commercial benefits beyond the life of a patent. The case of Aspirinprovides a good example. Developed in 1897 by Felix Hoffman, a research chemist working with Bayer Company in Germany, the drug was patented in 1899 by the Bayer Company. Knowing that patents have a limited duration, the Bayer Company embarked upon promoting a trademark for its new product. When the Aspirin patent expired, the company continued to benefit from the sale of aspirin through its established trademark Aspirin.The Bayer Company has also used the two-track IP strategy, using a trademark to protect market share after the expiry of a patent, for its Ciproproduct (ciprofloxacin for treatment of infections, including anthrax).
Technological innovation can also be supported well by a combination of patent, industrial design and trademark. A look at the invention and development of the vacuum cleaner provides a good example of strategic use of a combination of different types of IP tools, namely, patents, industrial designs and trademark. In this case, one can see how the innovation is enhanced by the use of the three tools of IP protection.
Trade secrets, patents, trademarks, industrial designs, and copyright may separately or jointly facilitate the acquisition of technology and its commercial use. Strategic use of a combination of IP tools in the innovation process can significantly contribute to facilitating the appropriation of higher profits, maintenance of a premium market position, thus enabling technology-based, innovative small and medium-sized enterprises to have a high return on investment.
The role of marketing is seen, above all, in providing communication links between the market entities, in which intersect and harmonize their mental models, thus forming a "communicative field" for the creation and dissemination of innovations. At the same time marketing interaction affects the following urgent questions — who can and should be a part of the creative process as to ensure its effectiveness and to evaluate the effectiveness. This leads to the use of role-based analysis of the interaction between the participants to identify the generator of ideas that promote innovation and sensing, administrators, and network switches. Role analysis allows to identify and meet the interests of the participants according to their position in a particular network of relations at a particular time.
Further development of the concept of marketing in the innovation market should be aimed at the study of its role in shaping not only competitive, but also the benefits of the partnership entities to ensure their effective cooperation in the creation, dissemination and adoption of innovations. The main objective of marketing is "the development of continuous communication processes or dialogues", to track, to generate new knowledge, to translate it into a product and successfully used to achieve qualitative satisfaction of participants interaction.
On the whole, the role of marketing is very important and we should consider it in every step of innovation market.
- «Innovation and Entrepreneurship» Peter Drucker
- «Innovation in Marketing» Peter Doyle
- «Innovation, Market Archetypes and Outcome» unknown
- «Profitable Innovation» Georg Tacke, David Vidal, Jan Haemer
- «Quick answers to marketing questions», Aliston Alsbury
- «Social Innovation and New Business Models» Laura Michelini
- «Marketing Management and Strategy», Peter Doyle
- «Маркетинговые коммуникации: современная креативная реклама», Д. Ялдин
- «Маркетинг от А до Я» Филип Котлер
- «Инновационный маркетинг» Владимир Секерин