Farabi — first philosopher in his times
Ахмеджанов М. М., Нурматова Н. У. Farabi — first philosopher in his times // Молодой ученый. 2016. №2. С. 943-944.
Farabi — was best known thinker of the east in the middle centuries, the biggest distributer of ancient Greek science and philosophy, contributed to that, scholar. He was born in Utrar (Farab) city situating around the Sirdarya, and studied in Shosh (Tashkent), Bukhara cities, after that he went to Bagdad city the centre of Arabian khalifat, stayed for a long time, was busy with studying Greece scholars’ works and learning different languages there. He was in communication with famous scholars of his time, he spent last years of his life in Damask.
Farabi studied deeply various subjects of his age, wrote educational work about different fields. He was a first philosopher of his time, became famous as musician, poet, encyclopedic scholar. He wrote more than 160 pamphlets such as “Pamohlet about intelligence”, “What to learn before philosophy”, “About substantion”, “Resource of philosophy”, “Entering to logics”, “Resource of issues”.
Farabi was the first who created the classification of subjects of his time and wrote sidolas dedicated to it. He wrote big work dedicated to musical issue, gave details to the theories of music and left the definition of a number of musical instruments as flute, flute dust, rubab which were widespread in the East. His work about music, plays a very important role in the history of the Eastern music. He was an encyclopedic scholar at his time, and the author of the works about mathematics, medicine, Arabic grammar, chemistry, astronomy, logics.
But, first of all, Farabi is a famous philosopher — gained fame as the author of several works on the most important issues of philosophy.
He made a great contribution to the further development of ancient Greek philosophy in the East, especially in the study of the ancient world's encyclopedic scholar’s Aristotle’s works, writing reviews on them and in promoting and developing the ideas of them. If Aristotle was known as “the first teacher” — Farabi became “the second teacher” in the whole East.
He wrote definitions to Aristotel’s all works about philosophy and early greece scholars Platon, Halen, Evklid, Parphari, Sokrats’ risolas.
Farabi is the first thinker who composed major works on social and political issues during that period. He put forward social issues such as the structure of the various aspects of social lives, especially in the prevention and management of various social conflicts and the idea of creating a social group. Farabi cited that establishing a mature community is connected with the solution to the problem of the creation of a perfect man for the first time in the condition of middle Ages. His famous works as “Life of population of ideal cities”, “About ideal community”, “About achieving happiness” are dedicated to these issues.
He underscored the richness of the diversity of the nature of the universe, and basing on them he highlighted 4 elements: soil, water, fire and air, along with them he emphasized that the beginning of the universe had come into existence by using the primary creative force in the radiation levels.
That’s why his worldview has pantheistic content. According to Farabi’s idea, the great and mature product of creatures is man, he has an ability to learn the world in every way through his consciousness, intelligence, sensitive bodies. Human understands the essence of the creatures around him by using his mind.
Particularly, its socio-political doctrine is extremely advanced for his era, which is fed by the humanitarian ideas. Human, his activities, striving of improvement lie on the basis of social life. Community that leads Man to happiness can be a mature one. Farabi looked for the direction of achieving that advanced community. To create a perfect man, to lead him to the happiness should be the task of the head of any state. Communities differs from each other depending on the desired goal.
Farabi’s humanity, guidance for advancing human personality development and education, ideas about achieving science and education methods are combined with solving social problems. Farabi tried to resolve these series of problems in terms of the creation of the human personality, human beings, the progress of humanity. We would not be mistaken to say that Farabi was a founder of the teaching doctrines in the Near and Middle East in mid-century. Because, in his works he analysed didactic, psychological foundations of education, ethics, and important theoretical issues of the intricacies as an integral part of his philosophy.
Farabi divided philosophy into theoretical and practical. The theoretical philosophy dealths with the creature and its life forms, ways and means of knowing the world, the role of science in it, and practical philosophy dealths with everyday issues such as applications covered with a number of issues such as the role of man’s mature philosophy, education, social life and solving problems.
So, Farabi demonstrated issues of pedagogy, psychological and physiological problems which are closely linked with that issues as an important part of the philosophy and interpreted all aspects of human learning as an integral and interrelated parts of commitment.
Processed, the human body, the brain, sensitive organs presented at birth, but the intellectual knowledge, spiritual, psychological, intellectual and moral qualities, character, religion, customs, education and others come into by contact with other people, external environment, human will take them through its activities. His mind, thought, spiritual development is the most mature product. Humanbeing may have knowledge about primordial and beginning of the creature by the end of development of his knowledge and mind.
According to Farabi, training can be carried out by using two different methods: voluntary and compulsory. If trainer didn’t try necessary, mental and moral qualities, to be educated to love the truth and honesty, courage, endeavor to take such qualities as loyalty to friends voluntarily, the teacher will have to teach these qualities. Having such high qualities is an important condition for human’s happiness, creating the community that leads to happiness.
At the same time encouraging everyone to take a mature qualities as a member of the team will need to work consistently. A perfect human being and community basing on happiness are two sides of the issue, and a single question. According to Farabi’s idea, leader of a mature community leading to happiness should have perfect qualities and qualifications necessary for developed leader. Otherwise, it will have variety of obstacles to achieving the goal.
Leader or leaders should be an example for all of its citizens and educators.
Farabi advanced educational views during the early medieval civilization embodies the ideas in this sphere. He corresponded to the period of the education of his time.
Farabi philosophy, including his educational ideas, especially in social pedagogy East and West had a big impact in the last thinkers and scholars such as Avicenna, Biruni, Miskaveyx, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Khaldun, Roger Bacon, David, Didakta, Spinoza.
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