Human existence in the works of medieval thinkers
Ахмедова З. А. Human existence in the works of medieval thinkers // Молодой ученый. 2016. №1. С. 857-859.
Social and political processes will change the outlook of the natural movement of the human life, it encourages the person to be free and think independently. The new historical conditions will require a new interpretation of the past. The last decade of the twentieth century is different from other periods of radical changes in the life of our country. Economic and political changes of the Republic life, restoration of cultural and spiritual national values are vivid example of them. The President of the Republic noted: «This is an ancient and sacred soil of the great thinkers, prominent scholars and thinkers, scientists, scholars, politicians, of our commanders.... Survived from a brutal period, the writings of the most ancient manuscripts today, over twenty thousand manuscripts kept in depository libraries, which are concentrated in history, literature, art, politics, ethics, philosophy, medicine, mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, architecture, agriculture tens of thousands of works of our great spiritual wealth, pride "1.
In fact, philosophical, encyclopedic school created by our ancestors has been retained to the present day. To restore their names and to implement their created priceless works are our current urgent task. “It is high time to study hard of ancestors’ through centuries of accumulated life experiences, religious, ethical, scientific and reflects the opinions of rare manuscripts» 2.
The idea of Educators’ «Salvation is in science and lore», has found its own solution today. Because, owing to independence, a new access to scientific research has been available. Today, the raising of people's attitude and outlook are important in the formation of the spiritual heritage. «Great ideas, new discoveries, in an anticipation of intentions»3. To present the cultural heritage of the people in front of the social sciences is one of the most important tasks of creative thinkers.
Assets created as a valued and honored man in his own mind, the best minds and intellect, humanity, sincerity, such as tactful with higher qualifications. After all, «The Earth is world of school life and the universe lessons are learned here». The main reason is here lives Human being that can open the essence of all thing.
Spiritual and moral perfection is a process of specific to the human race, because it is based on a sense of the great power of thought not only define the boundaries lie with the truth, but also friends can distinguish the enemy Knowledge as well as behavior, and the efforts of solidarity turn a man into a wise man, the level of human perfection. There is no doubt, because the pursuit of beauty and moral perfection — this is a feature of specific to the human race.
In Farabi’s work “Book about the pursuit of happiness” to percept for the human beauty effectively it must be the basis of a delicate nature and intellectual excellence, people with emotional and mental abilities assumes that all may know the secrets of the world, the true wisdom of man to become a man of knowledge will bring happiness and joy to discover its beauty and perfection through human cognition, that excites. Farabi encouraged people to engage with the art and science so that they will understand what wonderful things are.
According to Farabi, the process of developing the human person throughout their life to learn and take the moral norms of science and art of life is enriched by the experience. Human qualities are formed by human impact. «One man alone can not attain perfection. Each person must unite and support each other with needed help to attain perfection "«, To shape the personality of the man, and to distinguish his active mind with other well beings and human can not stand without activity, but any effort do not make a man into a man” says a thinker man.
Patriotism, humanity, kindness and devotion play a huge role in the process of education. According to the scientists, that life is based on relationship of good and enduring knowledge. A good idea and the knowledge develop spiritual good forces in the world. Bad idea leads to the weakening of the good forces. Humanitarian and Creativeness are main forces of these virtue. A man who can love, forgive, and be compassionate — a source of health and peace, philosophy, and spirituality, which are the purposes of human life. Farabi, said: «If there is a continuation of educating Spirit and cleansing, we can achieve good results». As we know the health of the spirit of our ancestors, which we attach great importance to it.
According to Abu Rayhan Biruni, “ all the valuable things are created with human labor and the value of human is not defined who were his ancestors but it is defined by his labor”. Biruni’s, social and moral beliefs permeated with a sense of humanity and social vision of the human heart, the human society.
Thinker explains that all his thinking through the rule of the asset. Therefore, all animals of the earth obey him, otherwise most people would be weaker than a small animal of the Earth. It relies on the human mind based on knowledge of the external world and therefore it is said to be superior to all creatures.
According to the human mind knowledge to develop knowledge is about the nature of the universe. But there is no limit to the knowledge and can not take all the information quickly. For this reason, one is not satisfied with what he learns, but also need to constantly strive to learn new skills. According to him, human is the king of gaining knowledge, understanding, thinking, discussing and creating.1.
Beruniy indicated the importance of education in people's mental care, ethical, and human psychological changes. Human only acquire knowledge and ability to carry out work to be done. Human intelligence is to know the event. 'But the people and events and emotional learning do not stop at the level of knowledge about the properties, but also to know in detail what needs to think about these things,' said Biruni.
Beruniy’s work has an importance of creativity in the development of the social sciences and humanities. First of all, in his opinion, be enlightened morality, and knowledge associated with elegance. Mental abilities will be made on the basis of a person's daily needs, and ethical issues related to the historical development of bilateral relations with the people will emerge and develop. Beruniy think about the person's virtues and vices, kindness, compassion, friendship, love and glorify the human qualities like compassion and lying, evil, cruelty, hypocrisy, condemns the spread of gossip.
The image of man's spiritual, bad and good is determined by the moral concepts. Goodness catches him in pursuit of patience, a strong will and high moral convictions demand. Offices of a bad lot, but the main three things: envy, anger and illiteracy.. According to Biruni, anger and human knowledge, the most powerful and the most fatal enemy. First, the selfish treatment of consciousness. People will get rid of all the evil minds of science. Science will need to meet the vital needs of the people.
In Beruniy’s looks, the concept of measure is in a high position. According to him, surrounded by the extent of pleasure — this is good, that is to be endowed with good behavior, justice and truth, pride and anticipation. Beruniy as in his good looks and the idea, thinks that friendship should be repayable3. Goodness is to do good to all people, and especially to relatives, or wishing goodness to one another.4
Beruniy think about the history of human, history is a source of thoughts and ideas, it is always the efficacy of the various subjects of mutual integration, and as a result of the combination of continuity, so history will serve as an important source of research for the inventor. The study of historical sources important part of the process, because the interests of the historical source package collect evidence. The same situation on Beruni, said: «The messages can be true or false because of messengers».
The history of philosophy that embodies all the best qualities of a unique human beings have opinions about. It is interpreted in different ways by the human thinkers. Beruni for the first time in the history of science, learned the relations between man and nature, man and the world. According to him, their structure, color, behavior, behavior to be different, not only the genealogy of their soil, but also water, air and land, the habitat is different. «Man is by nature a complex body. Human body consists of opposite parts opposite to one another, the dependence of these forces combined. People are similar and at the same time they are different. "
Biruni's peculiar ideas about friendship. He describes life as a unique gift of friendship. Without a sincere respect for the man, believing in him, and without that education there can not be friends. Enemies always try to rape their ancestors, trying to spread the false words. Friends of the Disabled detrimental to express beauty in the way, and even tried to ascribe the evil deeds. Friends differ physically, but spiritually they are united. What they want for themselves, they want to have it to their friends as well. The happiness of a man is in praiseworthy behavior of a friend with a decent lifestyle. Thinker continue his opinion, he said:
Consent eyes saw no one to blame,
Disagreed eyes disclosure the blame
Beruniy in the formation of a child’s behavior, enlightens the importance of well-recognized family. If you are using the best methods of education and the family, in turn, targeted and carried out according to the requirements of education, the family, of course, will be happy. Beruniy said, the natural beauty of the man, his moral character illustrated in the form of family life, otherwise people will want to bookmark for the beauty and perfection of every human structure. In Family education, parents are responsible for their children. Thinker and they always help a colleague and close to each other that will be highlighted. Courtesy, good manners, healthy, beautiful children on delivering the best care to her mother. But the morality of the youth, you can change your lifestyle for the better. Because the human body can rule. First, the bad behavior of education to assure you read a book about morality, good natured friendship and cooperation should be familiar with, that was a thinker. Man, first of all, his heart, the spirit of the reasons that the worst vices and sunlight to shade the truth needs to be cleaned.
As Biruni has stated, order and harmonious effects to human spirit and at the same time, the heart tends to affect to it. According to him, the most important qualities human beings are cleanliness and punctuality.
The closest thing of a man are his nature, and spirit. Therefore, people should be involved in the work that pleases his nature. If his clothes are considered to be neat and tidy, so it means his soul and spirit are also clean. Biruni's ideas rely on morality and beauty, therefore it is very important to learn.
As it is stated by thinker, “A person's value is measured by the performance of his work. Because of the person's labor only, his wishes and desires, can become true.” As it is known, the three things: heredity, environment and education play a key role to the fulfillment of the human.
On of the development of Eastern philosophy, one of legendary thinkers Abu Ali Ibn Sina hold a significance role in the Renaissance era. He was awarded as «The Islamic world's most famous encyclopedic scholar and philosopher, and one of the greatest thinkers of humanity», Abu Ali ibn Sina's life and work of generations gives a special sense of pride and respect. Philosophical issues are of a particular importance to the thinker’s scientific research. Philosophy, sciences cluster, all human wisdom are acclaimed as the basis for the issue. Ibn Sina assets of substance, quantity, quality, response time, described the situation as the category. All of these categories of cause and effect are in the form of contact.
The important aspect of a thinker is the philosophical categories depending on the objective in relation to the natural laws of the universe. He says the mission is to understand the truth and philosophy better. That being the case, the thinkers divide philosophy into two parts: theoretical and practical.
Abu Ali Ibn Sina plays a great role in the theory of Knowledge. According to J.Kyuri words, his entire life was focused on the scientific knowledge of the truth. The limited capacity of the great man's ability to have said that, there are also good, the power of the mind is infinite, 'he said.
Ibn Sina's scientific activities for the period of their striking example of the dialectical think. The conflict, confrontation, as the cause dialectical elements. He acknowledged the fulfillment of any changes as a result of the struggle of contradictions.