Despite the benefits of using renewable energy sources (RES) large-scale development of renewable energy in Uzbekistan has not been reached. In this article reasons of slow development of RES in Uzbekistan are investigated and also solutions of these reasons are presented.
Keywords: Renewable energy, Uzbekistan, solar radiation, solar power resources, wind power resources, solar plant, hydro power resources, new projects, shortcomings.
The world's progress in the field of technology to transform and application of various types of renewable energy sources (RES) and assess of the technical feasibility based on these sources electrical and thermal energy demonstrate possibility of satisfying current and future needs of Uzbekistan in power for the long term. This can be done through a phased use of renewable energy and the creation of environmentally safe sources of electricity and thermal energy for different purposes and different power levels for use in the electric power system of the country, in district heating systems, as well as decentralized sources in energy supply to various customers in various sectors of the economy of different regions of the country.
Uzbekistan is rich in hydrocarbon resources, and is now almost completely energy provided from its own resources, but the country's economy is highly dependent on the use of non-renewable hydrocarbon resources in the first place — natural gas, whose share in the total energy exceeds 90 % .
However, after 2020 the deficit of liquid hydrocarbons as a result of the exhaustion of own resources will grow again after 2030 become a threat to the energy and overall economic security. The total resources of liquid hydrocarbons, which need to be replaced in 2030 with alternative energy sources, with full exhaustion of own resources may be more than 4.5 mln. toe. with an annual increase on growth within the economy. This suggests that even now it is necessary to create a base for the replacement of liquid hydrocarbons with alternative energy sources.
Using of renewable energy in Uzbekistan in the industrialized significant scale will allow a significant reduction in natural gas consumption in the country for the production of electricity and heat and thus will significantly reduce emissions of harmful substances into the environment from stationary sources of pollution in the whole country, and in particular on areas with unsatisfactory environmental situation.
Large-scale use of different types of renewable energy by switching to a decentralized energy supply in reasonable technical and economic limits will solve following problems of Uzbekistan:
Improving energy supply facilities in rural areas and in particular in remote inaccessible areas, where at present there is no electricity, heating or shortage of power supply;
Creation of conditions for reliable and sustainable energy, water supply for the development of various industries on this basis;
The creation of new high voltage industries and new vacancies in the industry for the production and use of energy equipment and systems based on renewable energy.
At the same time differentiation of the distribution by region of various types of renewable energy sources and their resource potential along with the regime characteristics of renewable energy makes it necessary to take account of these factors with the technical and economic calculations and rationale use in electricity, heating different objects and capacity of various sources renewable energy, including through the combined use, allowing to increase the energy efficiency of their application.
Energy resources of solar radiation
Territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan belongs to the category of countries with high solar radiation intensity. Gross potential of solar radiation in the Republic of Uzbekistan is estimated from 525 bln. KWh to 760 bln. KWh. Average sunshine duration southern part of country is 3050 hours / year . Studies show yearly average and monthly average data can be a base for preliminary calculation of peak capacity of PV-arrays in different geographic zones, territories of their installation. Considering data on winter and summer seasons we can conclude that in conditions of Uzbekistan solar power engineering with correct projecting can cover load demand up to 1/3 of summer and up to 1/6 in winter. Therefore, utilization of solar energy only is effective for energy supply to small settlements of sheep men on desert territories and distant-pasture cattle tending in mountains.
Shortly about wind power engineering resources
Average yearly wind speed on the whole territory of Uzbekistan is 2–2,5 m/sec. This circumstance caused the opinion on non-prospectiveness of wind power engineering in the country, especially for wind turbines of middle and high power. Some regions Aral Sea basin, Kyzylkum desert territory and foothill zones of Tashkent region (Charvaqand, Bekabad) yearly average wind speed is 4–5 m/sec and more. Taking intoaccount that these territories are remote to considerable distance from grid and on hard-to-reach desert, mountain and foothill regions, utilization of wind energy in such regions looks economically expedient.
Constructed an experimental wind power plant with capacity of 750 kW in order to assess the possibility of using wind energy surface layers of the atmosphere (up to 100–150 m).
Shortly about hydro power engineering resources
The total technical hydropower potential of the country, identified above design studies amounted to 21.09 billion. KWh, including 6.85 at existing hydropower plants: 3.06 — potential for differential channels; 1.36 — When the irrigation reservoirs; 9.82 — rivers, including technical hydropower potential of small hydropower republic was 10.4 bln. KWh, ie half of the total, including 2.0 billion. KWh in existing small hydropower; 3.06 — potential for differential channels; 1.36 — When the irrigation reservoirs; 4.0 — on small rivers.
Constraints on the use of renewable energy sources in Uzbekistan
This situation seems that this is due to the following reasons.
The absence of the State target program for the development of complex intersectoral use of renewable energy in Uzbekistan on medium and long-term periods (2020 ÷ 2030), envisages the following .
- Development of integrated studies of the energy potential of natural and artificial watercourses, solar radiation, wind currents at the surface and the surface layers of the atmosphere, the Earth's interior heat, biomass, taking into account the characteristics of their regimes, the prospects for the use of electric and thermal energy for industrial significant volumes based on specialized modern methods of instrumental and computational — theoretical study; estimation of their technical energy potential, production of state accounting RES with the establishment of stages using different types of renewable energy.
- Conduct research, performance development — design work on the development of technologies and equipment that provides the conversion of various types of renewable energy in electricity and heat in a commercially viable quantities.
- Are experienced and skilled — industrial power plants based on renewable energy; their complex tests; including the field in various regions of the country other than natural — climatic conditions.
- Mastering innovative technologies and tools developed in industrialized countries to ensure the production of electricity and heat from renewable energy sources in industrially relevant quantities for use in centralized systems of heat; cold supply and electricity system of the country, in energy supply as a major energy-intensive facilities, as well as a large number of small energy-intensive facilities.
- Setting for serial or limited production of a wide range of power equipment working on different types of renewable energy sources;
- Perform complex design and survey work on the construction, commissioning and operation of power plants, systems, plant-based renewable power levels and destination.
The lack of state orders for the production, supply, commissioning of power plants, systems, stations and systems based on renewable energy facilities for the public sector, as a priority on the most important objects.
Lack of regional, branch, object development programs for the use of RES electricity, heating up to 2020 ÷ 2030 y.
The lack of a package of laws providing for the development of renewable energy use on objects of different forms of ownership (public, joint, private, individual) relevant standards and regulations in the field of renewable energy.
The lack of specific notified body responsible for the development and implementation of state programs for the development of renewable energy use.
The lack of specialized funding sources of comprehensive measures and work to develop the use of renewable energy sources in commercially viable quantities.
The lack of modern energy test equipment and power from renewable energy sources taking into account the natural — climatic conditions of the country, characterized by the presence of regions with sharply — potential and dry tropical climate and a specialized manufacturer-independent Center for testing and evaluation of reliability indices.
The lack of targeted research to identify the possibility of producing energy from renewable energy sources equipment machine-building enterprises of the Republic.
The possibility of producing high power wind electric aircraft manufacturing enterprises.
The possibility of manufacturing medium and high potential of solar power plants in the enterprises of the Republic, who had experience and technological installations in the production of glass.
The lack of training in the field of renewable energy and advanced training.
Lack of scientific — technical information in the required quantities of the achievements and shortcomings on perspective technologies and energy equipment on the basis of different types of renewable energy available in the achieve significant progress in the use of renewable energy sources (Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy, China and others).
Currently, the country conducted a number of organizational and technical and scientific work to eliminate these shortcomings:
NGO «Physics-Sun» and the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan developed the «Road Map for the development of solar energy in Uzbekistan».
Created by the International Institute for Solar Energy (ISEI) in March 2013. Purpose of creation ISEI is the early development of solar technologies in Uzbekistan and their introduction into the national economy.
Open in technical universities specializing in renewable energy sources.
Constructed a test solar photovoltaic power plant 130 kW in Namangan region. During the construction of the station used a variety of photovoltaic cells, equipment, performance of which will be tested in natural conditions of Uzbekistan.
Organization of joint production of solar panels in the Navoi region. This will provide a great opportunity for the development of solar technologies in the country.
Preparing a project of the State Standard of the Republic of Uzbekistan «solar photovoltaic stations» with five departments in Uzbekistan.
It is planned to construct photovoltaic solar plant with a capacity of 100 MW by 2016 in the Samarkand region.
Oil company «Lukoil» plans to build photovoltaic solar plant with a capacity of 2 MW for fields in the Bukhara region.
Works 6 automatic weather stations in different areas to determine the important data such as meteorological data, solar radiation, rainfall, etc.
The use of renewable energy in Uzbekistan in particular photovoltaic solar panels is considered prospectively.
Measures that the Republic accepts have a positive impact on the use of RES in different scales. In close future in Uzbekistan a big leap in the use of renewable energy will be observed.
- G. K. Saidova, T. P. Salihov, X. Kabulova, A. Elisov. Alternative resource of energy: Potential use in Uzbekistan. Center for Economic Research. 2011.
- D. A. Abdullaev, R. I. Isaev. Resources of solar radiation and wind energies in Uzbekistan and system of their combined utilization, ISESCO Science and Technology Vision — Volume 1 (May 2005) pp. 76–82.
- NGO «Physics-Sun», Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. presentation of the «Road Map for the development of solar energy in Uzbekistan» Round table workshop Tashkent, November 11. 2014.