Innovative economy of Kazakhstan
Сунакбаев Ш. К. Innovative economy of Kazakhstan // Молодой ученый. 2015. №23. С. 659-661.
Dynamic development of the innovative sphere — one of main composed innovative economy. Such hi-tech economy assumes existence of effective innovative system and creation of institutes of support of innovative process. According to the UN, today Kazakhstan isn't even included into the twenty of the hi-tech nations of the world. The first ten the states with innovative economy includes Finland, the USA, Sweden, Japan, South Korea, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Canada, Australia and Singapore. Further China and India follow.
Key to formation of economy of new type in Kazakhstan are large-scale investments into new technologies and creation of conditions for continuous reproduction of knowledge and their embodiment into new hi-tech products and services. In development of economy play the information communication technologies which are a basis of new infrastructure of the country large role. They have to develop the advancing rates in comparison with an economy level of development. Innovative activity of the Kazakhstan enterprises is noticeable in the branches making production with low extent of processing. Innovative activity in branches where the domestic producer dominates attracts attention. It belongs to the food industry, production of coke and oil products. So, in agricultural regions, suppliers of food, the greatest percent of innovative production in a total amount of the industrial enterprises is noted. The enterprises of mechanical engineering and the metal working light for industry are compelled to compete with the whole world. Thus in the republic of 4,8 innovation-active enterprises of the domestic industry. For providing a sustainable development of Kazakhstan on the basis of diversification and modernization of economy, creation of conditions for production of competitive types of production and export growth the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 17, 2003 approved Strategy industrial нновационного developments of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2003 — 2015 which is directed on formation of the state economic policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period till 2015 and is aimed at achievement of a sustainable development of the country by diversification of branches of economy and withdrawal from a raw orientation.
Production of competitive and export-oriented goods, works and services in manufacturing industry and a services sector is the main subject of the state industrial and innovative policy. According to provisions of Strategy, in all branches of economy of Kazakhstan transition to the advanced international standards has to be carried out. The major question which Kazakhstan faces today, is a providing innovative projects with financial resources. Statistical data on the size of costs of technological innovations of the enterprises for sources of financing testify to a certainty of prevalence of a source of financing of innovations at the expense of own means of the enterprises. Such aspiration of these organizations to support own scientific and technological potential is undoubtedly important.
For the last decades it was developed and the set of the documents fixing an innovative way of development is accepted. In the republic the special structures which are carrying out financing of innovative projects at the expense of state budgetary funds were created. The first steps are taken on active state support of venture business. The created national innovative fund includes in the tasks of institutsialny support of innovative process also creation of venture funds. For expansion of activity of the small innovative enterprises in Kazakhstan such forms as science and technology parks are used. In general the Kazakhstan economy moves to new economy. Problems of effective use of scientific and technical potential have strategic scales. Innovative processes in Kazakhstan are not so much market mechanisms, how many a purposeful state policy; the state can have decisive impact on formation of the national system of institutes adequate to requirements of creation of new economy. For the purpose of improvement of industrial and innovative policy the innovative infrastructure within which the state institutes of development function, for example by JSC Development Bank of Kazakhstan, JSC Investitsionny fod Kazakhstana, JSC National Innovative Fund, JSC Fund of Development of Small Business, JSC "The center of engineering and a transfer of technologies, etc. was created, and also free economic zones are created. At the present stage the problem of implementation of projects within modernization of the industry and diversification of economy is solved. Tools and mechanisms of realization of this direction are fixed in the 30 corporate leaders of Kazakhstan program which main mission is the accelerated modernization of national economy and increase of competitiveness of the Kazakhstan producers".
The book of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is continuation of scientific researches of the problems of post-industrial development of society begun in its previous edition "Strategy of Formation of Post-industrial Society and Partnership of Civilizations". In the present publication the bases of strategy of a partknerstvo of civilizations which are earlier developed by the author are applied to the solution of such global problems of postin-dustrialny society and modern globalization, as power ecological safety, unevenness of technological development, imperfection the ekoknomicheskikh of the relations. On the basis of the scientific global forecast "The future of civilizations for the period till 2050", developed by the Russian and Kazakhstan scientists, the author formulates strategy of the effective solution of three problems stated above on the principles of radical updating of global community and partnership of civilizations. This strategy the author finds it possible to consider at regular session of the United Nations General Assembly with the subsequent discussion it at the Vsemirkny summit on a sustainable development which N. A. Nazarbayev offers prokvest in 2012 in the capital of Kazakhstan — Astana. At a meeting of General Assambklei of the UN in September, 2007 the author already made the similar offer.
The subject of innovations in economy is continued also by the Russian author, the Doctor of Economics, professor of Rossiyksky academy of public service at the President of the Russian Federation Anatoly Spitsyn, our fellow countryman who gave almost twenty years to development of our region. In the book Integration at space of the CIS as strategic prospect of innovative modernization of economy (experience of the theoretical analysis). — M of a.:ekonomik, 2009.-295 villages assume that for the solution of strategic tasks "Russia — 2020" innovative modernization of economy needs to update production and to put into operation the enterprises. Enormous capital investments for creation of technologically new business assets will become one of the main factors of growth. Innovative modernization of economy provides effective participation of Russia in formation of the global market of high technologies and intellectual services. At the present stage development of power environmental problems is necessary. In the solution of these problems one of key places belongs to Russia and Kazakhstan, the znergoresurs possessing considerable stocks, an intellectual and technological reserve for development of the energy saving technologies owning methodology of global integrated macroforecasting. At the present stage of innovative development strategic objectives have to be based on qualitatively higher level of use and development of fuel and energy potential taking into account natural and ecological factors. Effective institutes and mechanisms which should be involved really in the relations of the CIS countries, first of all, of Russia and Kazakhstan are necessary. Achievement by joint conditions of competitiveness in the world market is possible by implementation of innovative modernization of the operating production in combination with accelerated accumulation high, including nanotechnologies in the breakthrough directions of innovative development of national economies of Kazakhstan and Russia.
The director of Institute of economy MAUN RK, the academician of NIA RK, the Doctor of Economics, professor, the Winner of the State award RK, the President of the Union of scientists of Kazakhstan, the author more than 300 scientific publications of Sabden Orazala in the monograph Competitive economy and innovations: monograph. — Almaty, 2009. — 152s. defines innovations as the main factor of increase of competitiveness of economy of Kazakhstan, offers criteria and indicators of determination of competitiveness of national economy. As an innovation "The economic manifesto" is provided to readers. The main idea of the author — creation of socially oriented economy in Kazakhstan. Definition of crisis requires strengthening of a role of the state in all strategic important spheres and fields of activity ensuring economic security of the country including scientific and technical area. Now active budgetary stimulation is necessary. Attraction of domestic agricultural formations, the overworking enterprises, including small business is also especially important. Our country needs to come to the new level of economic development. Formation of macroeconomic policy of our state has to be based proceeding from modern calls of globalization and financial instability, strengthening of the competition in the world markets, increases of a role of science and innovations, human development. The Concept consecrated in this book socially — the focused economy which cornerstone the ideas of the Economic manifesto touching on issues of increase of welfare of the people are has to become the key lever of model of national development. Orientation not on ideals of individual and mass consumption, and on preservation of traditions of a family and national features of the public relations is necessary for the benefit of the people of Kazakhstan. It is also the main key to creation of civil legal society in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Today Kazakhstan needs to look for the new directions of economic development. For increase of competitiveness of the country in the world market it is necessary to develop actively high-tech industries and to build effective national innovative system. Without it the innovative economy is simply impossible.
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