Features of English transport terminology
Магтымова М. А. Features of English transport terminology // Молодой ученый. 2015. №23. С. 1087-1089.
The objective processes which are passing now in system of scientific knowledge, lead to origination and wide development of applied scientific disciplines of difficult character. It creates requirement for development of new type of the terms combining reflexion of scientific and practical concepts of different branches of knowledge. Specificity of each concrete scientific discipline finds the reflexing in a terminology, and specificity revealing terminology different branches of scientific knowledge allows bringing in new refinement to problems, as terminology, and terms as a whole. The English-speaking terminology of a pipe-line transport is formed taking into account the structurally-language factors caused by laws of language, and the extra linguistic factors influencing development of a terminology of given scientific and technical activity owing to what is not static formation, and language as a whole is exposed to constant transformations, as well as. The observed terminology reflects as a language condition in a concrete period, and is the tool of its subsequent development.
The English transport terminology, different centuries-old history, and also prompt development now, finds fuller reflexing both in English, and in Russian general dictionaries. Thus the attention is deserved by that fact that as a whole, the English general dictionary fixes more quantity of transport terms, representing more than hierarchical levels of 137 logo-conceptual schemes of the given systems. Before to a common word to become the term, it should undergo to semantic specialization through its use in special contexts. These terms bring with themselves from everyday lexicon such signs which can already be expressed in new concept and are taken as a principle metaphorical carrying over. Thus, the form known already speaks about «the new» maintenance. «The metaphor is a transfer of meaning on similarity of external or internal signs, and also functions». The Major factors promoting hyphenation as terminological names from common-literary language:
1) the logic factor when at different concepts reveals identical signs;
2) the psychological factor, consisting that names are given to new objects on the basis of associative communication between available signs at already known and signs of new objects;
3) the linguistic factor, connected with semantic, grammatical,
4) the sociological factor, consisting that a considerable quantity of terms undertakes from the system of terms, the areas most developed for everyone epoch.
Term is engaged in studying of the special lexicon used by people in the professional work. Definition of the basic lines of special lexicon and methods of work with it has features of replenishment and models of its formation as the theoretical value connected with the decision of problems of purely linguistic character. At work with terms it is necessary to observe such cases quite often, when as the term with widely embrace value are called objects, having concrete designations that also can slow down in what -that degrees dialogue process in the situations demanding exact, concrete and the fast information. For example: «vehicle» — any transportation means; «transportation» — any kind of conveyance, transportation. Concept «the mixed message» — «combine transportation» (a transportation of freight in the mixed message) it is concretized by the words specifying in it different production engineering — «multimodal» («multimodal» — conveyance on to one deed). Multimodal cargo transportation. At such conveyances the transport company organizes delivery of a cargo by means of several aspects of transport facilities, for example, automobile and a railway transportation or automobile and air transport. Each transport company but only skilled and large firm as they demand constant control of a location of a cargo, necessity to make out a considerable quantity of deeds, to co-ordinate harmonious work of transport at each stage of delivery can offer multimodal conveyances not. Multimodal conveyances are actual on delivery a cargo in other country or on other continent. “Intermodal» («intermodal» — cargo conveyance in cargo units: containers, trailers etc.). Intermodal conveyances. They are similar to the multimodal. Difference consists that the cargo all road is in one transport means. For example, initially the cargo is located in the car which then calls in in the transport or on the vessel. With their help the car is forwarded to a certain place, whence continues traffic under the own steam. As at intermodal conveyances there is no necessity some times to overload a cargo from one transport in other, given aspect of conveyances provides high preservation of a cargo. While translating these terms can mix up that leads to errors in understanding concrete material.
In a transport terminology it is not always possible already fixed though, maybe, not absolutely «successful» term to replace to other, meeting installed demands. Existence at once two terms can create known inconveniences, lead to mess. Thus, scientists recommend replacing the term only then, «When the new term has obvious and indisputable advantages before the old terms. A heading of transportations of freight in «the mixed message», operations personifying logistical sequence, led to that the English term «forwarder» («forwarding agent») recently, It began to be replaced with the term «logistics provider», and it is true.
The big role in term creation is played by its motivation, i.e. «Its semantic transparency, property of its form to give representation about concept named the term». Terminological structure of the term, defined elements of terms and term — models, a definition inform us on its motivation, induct into the concrete notional area. Founders always reflected and think of, how to define term structure that in it have been considered as it is possible more expressively the basic, essential signs of concept, that in the term maintenance the certain system were most full reflected. Communications and a place in concrete notional system. Probably therefore, some official Russian names for specialized carriages on a railway transportation were gained too long, but correctly orienting and system. For example, the term «a gondola car for conveyance technological crampon and short-length wood», in it is really full reflected both patrimonial, and specific signs: system communication with patrimonial concept is shown «The specialized carriage», distinctive features are specified, defining its appointment. But at the same time this term will not be to meet other demands. In spite of the fact that at standardization to it did not pay attention, railroaders, being oriented on the English alternative, for a long time already the gondola cars name. Thus, we agree with V. P. Danileko, confirming on our instance that all demands made to the term unequal. If such demands as uniqueness, brevity, introduction is possible to refer to obligatory as they provide achievement of a main objective of standardization of a nomenclature, the others are only desirable.
V. M. Leychik results the major factors promoting carrying over words in the capacity of terminological names from the common-literary Language: 1) the logic factor when at different concepts reveal the identical signs; 2) the psychological factor, consisting that names the new to installations are given on the basis of associative communication between available Signs at already known and signs of new installations; 3) the linguistic factor, connected with semantic, grammatical, stylistic aspects of intersystem loan of the lexical units; 4) the sociological factor, consisting that the big quantity of terms undertakes from system of terms the most developed for each epoch of areas. In development of the English transport system of terms the opposite trend to brevity acts also designations. To professional lexicon in process formation of terms is widely adopted.
Abbreviation — any abbreviation used by specialists for Sweeping message transfer over communication channels, for example: “A and A” — Adjustments and Allowances,” “CCS” — Cargo Community System. For the purpose of training of experts to difficult language of abbreviations special branch dictionaries of reductions are created. The majority abbreviation units are the uniform accepted variants in the entire world; therefore, possessing concrete semantics, they do not cause the special difficulties while translating on other languages. It is necessary to note that use of abbreviations, as a way abbreviation of transfer of the verbal information, extended for the account abbreviation, and then transfers of processes.
- Bondarenko I. V. English marine terminology as a subject philological research.- М, 1992.
- Lotte D. S. Question of loan and streamlining’s speaking another language terms and elements of terms. — М, 1982.
- Lotte D. S. How to work over terminology: Bases and methods.-M,1980.
- Chuntomova J. A. English transport terminology, (the author's abstract).-2004.
- David Cotton. Marine transport terminology.- London 1976