Библиографическое описание:

Жумаева Ф. У. Polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema [Текст] // Филология и лингвистика в современном обществе: материалы IV междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, июнь 2016 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2016. — С. 1-3.



В данной статье приведены отличительные черты полисемемических лексем с синонимическими семами, полисемемических лексем с синонимическими семемами и синонимических лексем. Полисемемические лексемы с синонимическими семами анализированы как отдельная лексическая единица и перечислены факторы и средства, порождающие данные лексемы, отражён их анализ.

Ключевые слова: сема, семема, лексема, полисемические лексемы, полисемические лексемы с синонимическими семами, полисемические лексемы с синонимическими семемами, синонимические лексемы, метафора, метонимия, синекдоха.

Uzbek language is very rich in words. In this language synonyms are used widely. They are considered demonstrating beauty, richness of a language and width of style of expression. This phenomenon was studied in science of Uzbek language widely. Scientists who have dealed with investigation on lexicology and semasiology such as Sh.Rakhmatullaev [1], U.Tursunov [2], A.Hojiev [3], Ne’matov, R.Rasulov [4], M. B. Abdiev [5], H.Jamolkhonov [6], M. M. Mirtojiev [7], R.Yunusov [8], T.Mullaev [9], D.Abdullaeva [10], M.Khakimova [11] had studied important aspects of synonymic lexemes and also had investigated them within polysemantic lexemes but mostly synonymic sememas within polysemantic lexemes were studied in these researches. Synonymic semas within polysemantic lexemes have not been investigated as a special phenomenon in detail.

Polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema can concern both one part and different part. For example:

  1. Lexemes qaytmas, qo’rqmas (an intrepid, a fearless) concern part of speech of verb and they have synonym semas “botir”, “bahodir”(brave) in their figurative meanings. Qaytmas odam, qo’rqmas odam (an intrepid man, a fearless man).
  2. Lexemes uyg’ondi, uyg’oq (he awoke, awake) in combinations tabiat uygondi, tabiat uyg’oq (the nature awoke, the nature is awake) have synonym semas, too, the word uyg’ondi concerns part of speech of verb, the word uyg’oq concerns part of speech of adjective.

At the same time, polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema appear within parts of following speech too:

Within thewords in parts of adjective and noun:achchiq gap, zahar gap (a bitter speech, a poison speech). Lexemes achchiq, zahar express semas “influencing on a man badly”, “unpleasant”.

It is possible to observe within thewords in parts of verb and adjective: lexemes atangan and taniqli (named and known) in combinationsatangan odam, taniqli odam (a named man, a known man) are expressing semas “famous”, “well known to everbody”.

Polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema can make significance within thewords in parts of numeral and adverb: lexemes milliard (billion) and ko’p (many) in combination milliard yulduzlar (billion stars), ko’p yulduzlar(many stars)are expressing semas “mo’l”, “bisyor” (a lot of, lots of).

Polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema can make significance within thewords in parts of verb and noun: For example, kulish, kulgi (smiling, smile). Nasibaning kulishi (Nasiba’s smiling), Nasibaning kulgisi (Nasiba’s smile).

Polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema appear within following unit yet: it is possible to observe within root and derivative words. For example, laziz hayot (tasty life), lazzatli hayot (nice life). Laziz is root word, lazzatli is derivative word and they are expressing semas “yoqimli”, “shirin”, “totli”(nice, sweet, tasteful).

It is possible to observe within derivative words. For example, derivative words vaysaqi (chatterer), sayroqi (singing) in combinations vaysaqi odam (a chatterer man), sayroqi odam(a singing man) are expressing semas “ko’p gapiruvchi” (talkative), “mijg’ov (whimperer)”.

It is possible to observe polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema within pair, repeated and compound words. For example:

Pair words such as bordi-keldi, kirdi-chiqdi (mutual visitation, continuous walking) are expressing synonymic semas “munosabat” (regard for), “aloqa” (relation). Qo’shnilar bilan bordi-keldi qilyapsizmi? (Do you have mutual visitation with neighbors?), Qo’shnilar bilan kirdi-chiqdi qilyapsizmi? (Do you have continuous walking with neighbors?).

Lexemes ming-ming (thousand and thousand), g’ij-g’ij (full) in combinations ming-ming odam (thousands of people), gij-gij odam (full of men) are repeated words and they are expressing synonymic semas such as “ko’p” (many), “son-sanoqsiz” (innumerable).

They are seen within simple and compound words: lexemes egri (crooked), devorteshar (a puncher of wall) in combinations egri odam (a crooked man), devorteshar odam (a man punching a wall) are expressing sema “o’g’ri” (a thief).

They appear within simple and pair words. For example, lexemes og’ir-bosiq (heavy-restrained), vazmin (calm) in combinations og’ir-bosiq odam (a heavy-restrained man), vazmin odam (a calm man) are expressing sema “og’ir” (quiet). They mean a good, inherent feature in a man.

They are seen in compound words. For example, lexemes badjahl (angry), badqovoq (gloomy) come in the structure of combinations badqovoq bulut (a gloomy cloud), badjahl bulut (an angry cloud) and express semas “haybatli” (gigantic), “dahshatli” (terrible).

Polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema can differ according to method of use and estimation. For example, lexemes gul (a flower), oy (a moon) in the combinations gul yuzli (a face like flower), oy uyzli (a face like a moon) have “go’zal” (lovely), “chiroyli” (beautiful) semas and such meaning is used in the artistic style. Lexemes quruq (dry), lalmi (not requiring) in the combinations quruq odam (a dry man), lalmi odam (a not requiring man) express the sema “pulga ziqna” (stingy for money) and such meaning is used in the spoken speech. Lexemes mijgov (whimperer), vaysaqi (chatterer) in the combinations mijgov odam (a whimperer man), vaysaqi odam (a chatterer man) express the sema “ko’p gapiradigan” (talkative) and they are used in negative meaning.

Appearance of figurative meanings are based on the types of following borrowing meaning: Metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, sameness in task (Vazifadoshlik), allegory.

It is known that polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema appear within figurative meaningful words basically. The types of following borrowing meaning are the basis of their appearance on the whole:

Borrowing sense through the way of metaphor. It is based on identity. Lexemes nayrangboz (a conjurer), masxaraboz (a clown) in combinations nayrangboz odam (a conjurerd man), masxaraboz odam (a clown man) were used in figurative meaning and they are expressing synonymic sema such as “firibgar” (a cheat), “aldoqchi” (a deceiver). The words sher (a male lion) and arslon (a female lion) in compound words sheryurak (with lion’s heart), arslonyurak (with female lion’s heart) were used in figurative meaning. These lexemes are coming in the structure of a compound word and are making semas “qo’rqmas” (a fearless), “botir” (brave).

Lexemes shakar, (sugar), shirin (sweet) in combinations tili shakar (his tongue is sugar), tili shirin (his tongue is sweet) are express “yoqimli” (pleasant). Lexemes bel, (a waist), kindik (a navel) in combinations daryoning beli (a waist of river), daryoning kindigi (a navel of river) are expressing synonymic sema such as “o’rtasi” (its middle), “markazi” (its center). Lexemes lovullab (burning), tutaqib (being nervous) in sentences jahli chiqib lovullab ketdi (He has burned on being nervous), jahli chiqib tutaqib ketdi (He has been nervous by being angry) are appearing on the basis of identity of action and they are expressing the sema “qizishmoq” (to lose one’s temper), that is high emotion which appears when somebody is being angry.

Borrowing meaning on the basis of metonymy. It is based on connection. Lexemes issiq-sovuq (hot-cold), quyuq-suyuq (thick-liquid) can express synonymic semas such as “ovqat” (food), “taom” (meal): issiq-sovug’idan xabar oldi (He often went and see him. Word by word: “He knew of his hot-cold”.), quyuq-suyug’idan xabar oldi (He took care for his food, word by word: he knew of his thick-liquid). Lexemes samovar (samovar)and choy (tea) in sentences samovarga chiqdik (we went to samovar), choyga chiqdik (we went to tea) are expressing similar sema and the sema “choyxona” (Uzbek national canteen) is appearing.

Borrowing sense through way of synecdoche.It appears through transformation of name of a part to a whole, name of whole to a part.

Lexemes “ko’z” (eye) and “qomat” (figure) in sentences qora ko’zim seni sevaman (I love you my black eye), sarvqomatim seni sevaman (I love you my cypress (slender) figure) are making sema “inson” (a man). Lexemes “tom” (a roof), hovli (a yard), eshik (a door) in sentences tom soldik (we made a roof), hovliga bordik (we went to a yard), ueshikka borolmayman (I cannot go to that door) are expressing sema “uy” (home). Tom, hovli,, eshik are parts of home and a whole is expressing through a part.

In conclusion, polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema have peculiar characteristics and they are different from polysemantic lexemes with synonymic semema and synonym lexemes radically. Polysemantic lexemes with synonymic sema appears within other words in speech basically. For that reason, this phenomenon is considered a speech one. But synonymic lexemes are considered phenomenon of language.

References:

  1. RakhmatullaevSh. Semiktahlilvaleksiksinonimiyanita’riflashmasalasi //”UTA” 1979, № 6.
  2. Tursunov U., Muxtorov J., Rakhmatullaev Sh. Hozirgi uzbek adabiy tili. Lexicology, fonetics, morphology. Tashkent: “Ukituvchi”, 1975.
  3. Hojiev A. P. Synonymy // Lexicology of Uzbek language. Tashkent: “Fan”. 1981.
  4. Ne’matov X., Rasulov R. Uzbek tili sistem leksikologiyasi asoslari. Tashkent. “Ukituvchi”, 1995.
  5. Abdiev M. B. Sohaviy leksikaning sistem tahlili. Synopsis of thesis of dissertation on competition of doctor of philological sciences. Tashkent. 2005.
  6. Jamolkhonov H. Hozirgi uzbek adabiy tili. Part 2. Tashkent. 2008.
  7. Mirtojiev M. M. Uzbek tili semasiologiyasi. “Mumtoz suz”. 2010.
  8. Yunosov R. Polisimiya I sinonimiya imyon sushestvitelnix mesto v sovremennom uzbekskom literaturnom yazike. Synopsis of thesis of dissertation on competition of candidate of philological sciences. Tashkent. 1974.
  9. Mullaev T. Antonimlar // Lexicology of Uzbek language. Editor-of-chiefs A.Hojiev, A.Akhmedov. Tashkent: “Fan”. 1981.
  10. Abdullaeva D. Uzbek tilida anticemiya. Synopsis of thesis of dissertation on competition of candidate of philological sciences. Tashkent. 2010.
  11. Khakimova M. Semasiologiya. Tashkent. 2008.

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