Библиографическое описание:

Жумабеков А. С., Jouni V. Application of the practical learning in STEM education for using theoretical knowledge in the real world through lab experiments in physics lessons [Текст] // Педагогическое мастерство: материалы IX междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, ноябрь 2016 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2016. — С. 180-183.



The work of students in the school can be externally or internally motivated. This motivation can be developed by interaction in the science classroom. According to the results the International research PISA-2012 in Kazakhstan, external motivation is primarily related to the desire of students to get good grades and recognition from teachers and parents (OESD, 2013, PISA-2012 Results). According to the research of Andersen and Nielsen (2013), Niemiec and Ryan (2009), shows that extrinsic motivation can be an important element in students’ motivation for doing well in school, but internal motivation is more personal and satisfactory kind of motivation. Bøe, Henriksen, students’ motivation is important, since as e. g. Lyons and Schreiner (2011) argued that society needs more people in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professions to fill the needs of STEM education (figure 1).

STEM_wide_clear.png

Figure 1. The practical learning in STEM education

In our study STEM education means the integration of technology, mathematics and engineering in physicslessons. The students will possess all the necessary skills to solve technical problems and issues for the 21st century. Bøe and Henriksen (2013) studied three motivation and expectation profiles of Norwegian students in physics in secondary school and higher educational institutions. They determined that high school students emphasize internal factors during learning (interest, pleasure, fulfillment), but in the future do not plan to link their life with physics. It is expected that in the future research by analyzing the data from the students’ answers. The motivation in physics lessons and the training of future engineers, the STEM education through hands-on work will increase the confidence of students, and to find creative and innovative approaches to solving problems in the classroom. By increasing students’ self-confidence, contributes to their increased intrinsic motivation (Adams et al, 2006). According to the National Report of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (PISA-2012 Assessment and Analytical Framework) motivation and students’ interest in learning determine the success of the students’ future professional activities. Motivation for education has a positive impact on students’ learning outcomes today, on successful selection of future educational paths, and on getting the selected profession in the future. In conclusion, the main components of motivation to learn are perseverance in the study of any academic disciplines, and openness to find solutions.

According to the results of PISA-2012, it was revealed that Kazakhstanis 15-year-old participants of the international exam were not able to demonstrate skills in the use of scientific knowledge in various difficult real life situations, and also in the definition of scientific issues and explaining phenomena from a scientific point of view. As noted by Havlíček (2015), inquiry-based labs are aimed at teaching students scientific methods, skills and thought processes. Students are given a research task and, with the help of a teacher, design experiments, decide what instruments they will need and how they will analyse collected data. In future STEM classes, students participate in a specific project, and through laboratory experiments, they create with their own hands a prototype of an actual product (Kelley & Pieper, 2009). Students are often unable to see the phenomenon or concept, because they are too busy manipulating the tools of measurement and statistical analysis. This can be avoided by utilizing practice skills through laboratory classes. The phases and sub-phases of the synthesized practice-based learning in STEM education through laboratory experiment shows the students the application of scientific and technological knowledge in real life through practical lessons in the classroom (Pedaste et al, 2015). Thus, students can focus on the research question during the labs. Asking questions and defining problems in grades 9–12 builds from grades K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations (NGSS Lead States, 2013).According to Bielik and Yarden (2016), person-oriented strategy positively contributes to the development of students’ abilities to ask questions of the study during the execution of the laboratory experiment. Therefore, in the future, the plan is to conduct a study, which will be built on inquiry-based learning through laboratory experiment, which will help students in the formulation of the research question, to define, explain and apply scientific knowledge and knowledge about science in a variety of complex life situations. It is critical to increase the motivation of students to learning through the inclusion of practical exercises aimed at formation of skills of application of acquired knowledge in life situations. The aim is to study different topics (phenomena) by integrating STEM subjects. The study of certain subjects should be left discontinued in the 20th century, when the specialists with the appropriate skills were necessary. Successful teaching of science must include strategies that encourage students to learn the science topics that will help them in class and in life.

Brophy, Klein, Portsmor and Rogers (2008) point out that there is a need to identify methods for helping teachers develop the necessary practice skills and capabilities to connect students with science, technology, engineering and mathematics in the classroom. Moreover, if teachers are to inspire or encourage students to pursue a career in engineering or any of the STEM fields, they need to be aware of what engineers are and what they do; this can also be achieved through professional development (Avery &Reeve, 2013). According to the results of PISA-2012 in Kazakhstan, the OECD notes that the success of the performance test tasks for the international exam has a direct dependence on the professional level of teachers. The higher the share of teachers with higher education and the highest Kazakhstani education qualification category, the better the outcome of students. According to report, 31 % of 15-year-old study participants were enrolled in schools where there is a shortage of qualified teachers for science. As the need for students to become stronger in STEM grows, so does the need for well qualified STEM teachers who understand what is needed to develop relevant and high-quality STEM programs. Professional development can offer opportunities for those involved in the teaching of STEM to learn how to effectively integrate various instructional approaches (Avery & Reeve, 2013). With the introduction of STEM classes and training qualified teachers, the students will be able to implement knowledge of the theory in practice and in the results of PISA will be a positive trend in the future.

The aim of the study is to increase students’ motivation and to improve practice skills in formulating a good research question during physics lessons through laboratory experiments for applying theoretical knowledge in real life.

Research questions:

  1. How does students’ motivation to study science change by using the STEM education?
  2. How do students’ practice skills develop by using inquiry-based learning during laboratory experiments?
  3. What effect will the pedagogical development have on teachers’ classroom practices?

Table 1

Research methods, data collection, processing and data analysis.

Data and data collection

Data analysis

1

Interview 1, 2, 3 (consisting of structured and unstructured questionnaire that will answer anonymously. The interview based on formulating the research questions during the laboratory experiments)

Qualitative analysis

2

  1. Laboratory worksheets of the students (the worksheets during the whole research period)
  2. Final mini-research report (report from the students after the visits with scientists a research centers)
  3. Video (during the recording of laboratory lessons pay attention to the focus groups of students, where the emphasis is on formulating research questions)
  1. Linear (Pearson’s) correlation coefficients of students’ scores at individual segments of the research will be calculated
  2. Classification of research questions based on Cuccio-Schirripa and Steiner (2000): (i) answering the question requires empirical research and data collection; (ii) the matter involves specific measurable dependent variable that is defined manipulated independent variable, and the relationship between them; and (iii) the answer to this question is unknown to the student.
  3. Analysis of the 12 lessons during the laboratory work identifying what kind of dynamics in students’ motivation to learn science during classroom interactions can be identified

3

  1. Interview 1, 2, 3 (consisting of structured and unstructured questionnaire that will answer anonymously. The interview based on formulating the research questions during the laboratory experiments)
  2. Final laboratory report (laboratory report after the completing the course for teachers training)
  3. Video (videotaping of class observations of laboratory lessons and focus concentration on the analysis of teachers lessons)
  1. Statistical
  2. Classification research questions based on the determination Cuccio-Schirripa and Steiner, and analysis the teaching methods in STEM
  3. Analysis of 24 recorded lessons will be analyzed by using codes for analysis of students’ actions during the laboratory work and software Atlas.ti. The analysis of video recordings of lessons will focus on how teachers organize and support students in asking questions and defining problems, using models and simulation (NGSS Lead States, 2013) during laboratory work

The integration of natural Sciences with practical knowledge will demonstrate to students the application of scientific and technological knowledge in real life. A key challenge in solving the problem of increasing the efficiency and quality of the educational process is the activation of cognitive activity of students. The knowledge gained in finished form, tend to cause students difficulties in their application to the explanation of observed phenomena and the solution of specific problems. Every lesson through laboratory experiments students through the scientific process skills will contribute to the accurate understanding of the science. These program techniques STEM will effectively integrate science, technology, engineering, art and math in research training. Currently, changes in the curriculum and special attention is given to students in the future could use their knowledge in work practice and in everyday life. Method STEM will show students through informative lessons of innovative educational environment and the interaction of education with future profession. Through laboratory experiments and methods STEM will enable students to “think like scientists” and participate in the educational process. Students will be able to find answers in science.

References:

  1. Andersen, H. M., & Nielsen, B. L. (2013). Video-Based Analyses of Motivation and Interaction in Science Classrooms. International Journal of Science Education. Vol. 35, No. 6, 906–928.
  2. Avery, Z. K., Reeve E. M. (2013). Developing Effective STEM Professional Development Programs. Journal of Technology Education, vol. 25 No. 1, 55–69.
  3. Bielik T. &Yarden A. (2016). Promoting the asking of research questions in a high-school biotechnology inquiry-oriented program. International Journal of STEM Education.
  4. Bøe, M. V. &Henriksen, E. K. (2013). Love it or leave it. Norwegian students’ motivations and expectations for post-compulsory physics. Science Education, 97(4), 550–573.
  5. Bøe, M. V., Henriksen, E. K., Lyons, T., & Schreiner, C. (2011). Participation in science and technology: Young people’s achievement-related choices in late-modern societies. Studies in Science Education, 47(1), 37–71.
  6. Brophy, S., Klein, S., Portsmore, M., & Rogers, C. (2008). Advancing engineering education in p-12 classrooms. Journal of Engineering Education, 97(3), 369–387.
  7. Havlíček K. (2015). Experiments in Physics Education: What do Students Remember?WDS’15 Proceedings of Contributed Papers — Physics, Prague, Matfyzpress, 144–148.
  8. Kelley, T., & Pieper, J. (2009). PLTW and epics-high: curriculum comparisons to support of problem solving in the context of engineering design. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Hall of Technology.
  9. NGSS Lead States. 2013.Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Science and Engineering Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  10. Niemiec, C.P.,& Ryan, R.M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom. Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 133–144.
  11. Pedaste, M., Maeots, M., Siiman, Leo & Ton de Jong. (2015). Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle. Educational Research Review, 14, 47–61.
  12. PISA-2012 Assessment and Analytical Framework. Mathematics, reading, science, problem solving and financial literacy), PISA, OESD Publishing, 2013.
  13. PISA-2012 Results: What students know and can do. Students performance in mathematics, reading and science (Volume 1), PISA, OESD Publishing, 2013.

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