Автор: Абдулбокиев Фахриддин Авазбекович

Рубрика: 4. История отдельных процессов, сторон и явлений человеческой деятельности

Опубликовано в

III международная научная конференция «Вопросы исторической науки» (Москва, январь 2015)

Библиографическое описание:

Абдулбокиев Ф. А. Resources for the History of Khiva (half of the 19th century beginning of the 20th century) [Текст] // Вопросы исторической науки: материалы III междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, январь 2015 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2015. — С. 30-33.

 

It was many public-political events in the second half of the 19th century — beginning of the 20th century. That’s why, many researches always paid great attention to the History of Khiva. The literatures which about the History of the second half of the 19th century — beginning of the 20th century are divided the following groups: 1. Literatures which created in the period of domination of Russia. 2. Literatures of the period of Soviet. 3. Investigations of the period of Indepence.

These literatures differ not only periodical, maybe resourced, scientific, theoretical and ideal from each other.

The literatures which were created in the period of domination of Russian empery is divided the following groups: 1. Stories of the local authors. 2. Stories which was created by Russian soldiers and dominators.

The one of the famous best story of local author Mukhammad Yusuf Bayoniy’s «Shajarali Khorazm Shokhohiy, they used the first recourse of many searchers,

In Bayoniy’s story in Khiva it was expressed the historical events in a fluently, simple language in 1873–1914.

It was described brutally to the local people and invading by the troops of the Khan (Kingdom) in the story «Shajarai Xorazmshohiy».

Khiva’s Khan Said Mukhammad II Rakhimkhan’s brother Said Khamid Tura Komyob’s story gives an events which occurs in the period of Khiva Khans, then the political events which were occurred eve of the Russian conquest in the Khans of Khiva.

During narration of the events of invading by the Russian troops in the Komyob Khiva Khan the author said the colonel didn’t fight the War and he accused of the colonel’s action.

Until 1917 there wasn’t any critical idea about conquering Russia’s colonizing and invading the troops of the Empire of the Khan (Kingdom) of Khiva in many stories and articles written by the Russian officers and governors.

Unfortunately, it’s paid attention to the violence and heroism of conquering of the Khan of Khiva of the Russian troops and it’s shown that Khan’s becoming poor state is very important for Russia. Here are some stories: L. Kostenko [1], G. Sirovatskiy [2], N. I. Grodekov [3], V. Trotskiy [4], F. Lobsevich [5], O. SHkapskiy [6], V. Girshfeld [7], M.YU. Terentev [8], A.Semenova [9], V. Lobachevskiy [10], A. P. Xoroshxin [11], Maslov [12], X. Gelman [13] other stories and articles.

These authors defined the policy of colonizing which consists of violence of Russia proudly, they tried to legal dominating in the Khan of Khiva in the Central Asia.

In this period many Russian orientalist scientists also made scientific- investigating researches on the History of Khiva.

They are A. L. Kun [14], N. Veselovskiy [15], E. Jelyabujskiy [16], A. Divaev [17], V. V. Bartold [18]. It was created several stories about economic, cultural, political and public life of the Khan of Khiva by them.

Including, orientalist scientist A. L. Kun took part in the attack of Russian troops to the Khan of Khiva and announced several articles on the basis of impression.

He gave the wide information about number of the people who lives in the Khan, their life, main drill and economy, A.L.Kun described in his article during the attack confiscation the Palace the Khan of Kiva by Russian troops and gave the schedule of confiscation of financial and spiritual wealth which carried out of here.

One of the biggest lack in the Literature of the Soviet period is defeating the Khan of Khiva by Russia called «adding» and it is called positively.

This idea was said as main idea in the following author’s investigaions: M.Mamajanov [19], N. A. Xalfin [20], T. G. To‘xtametov [21], A. S. Sodiqov [22], I. V. Pogorelskiy [23], S. Rajabov [24].

For example: M.Mamajanov considers adding the Khan of Khiva to Russia except slight of local people’s right and installing the system of no merciful colony of Russia in Khan of Khiva.

He writes «Seizing the Khan of Khiva to Russia is not casual, maybe the historian situation was occurred like that» [25]. It was peculiar to other stories in the period of Soviet marking to conquering the Khan of Khiva by Russia,

For example, story of T. G. To‘xtametov which was devoted to learning of links between Russia and Khan. In this story political and economic problems were solved.

We say that the author gave the stress for a result colony of Russia to the Khan of Khiva.

Also, faked problems of installing the Soviet State and influence to October Revolution.

N. A. Xalfin is an author of several scientific on communicational history of the Middle Asia.

He marked seizing the Middle Asia by Russia as a positive event (He writes «Seizing»). Also, the people of Middle Asia said their people seized to Russia [26].

O. Sodiqov’s story was devoted to relations Russia and Khiva [27]. In this story it was given information of rich archive and literature, it was also learnt the status agriculture, crafts and industry in the end of the 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century. It was analyzed Russian culture influenced to Khiva’s culture. In the book it was paid attention to express the status of becoming of action of under National Freedom of Russian Revolution in 1905–1907.

In this book it was positively marked turning over the Khan of Khiva and influencing October Revolution to the Khan. T.To‘xtametov criticized their idea, said in 1916th events «It was a struggle for the authority absolutely between two feudal group» [28].

Kh.Khamdamov also characterizes under the basis of Youth Khiva people «They were nationalist who appearing with a purpose defending advantages of Bourgeoisie».

It is considered «Nationalists’ disturbed organizational preparation of the Revolution as falling over in Khiva», the author tried to finish his idea the following:

For example, the young Khiva people’s committee who is from Petro-Alexandrovs invites to turn out of the Party who is not the citizen of all Khiva people.

The Tatars and Russians who live there were to turn out of the Party. This was nationalistic act [29].

It was shown that the Literatures in the Soviet period in 1920 the problem of turning over of the Khan of Khiva.

These events were marked «The people’s Revolution», the Red army’s troops’ attack «Helping to the Khiva’s people who revolted» [30].

It was not shown mixed internal affairs of the Khan of Khiva and violence to local people during the attack of Soviet troops’ to the Khan of Khiva specially. For example, M. A. Abdullaev writes «The people’s revolution fulfilled in the result of the Great October Social Revolution and it was its logical continue» [31]. Meanwhile, this event was artificial export of Russian revolution to Khiva. After the Republic of Uzbekistan obtaining an independence, as all historical events the history of the Khan of Khiva also is started to learn with great a attention. The following investigators’ stories are devoted the events which was occurred the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century: M.Matkarimov [32], B.Koshanov [33], K.Xudoyberganov [34], S.Xasanov [35], R.Rajabova [36], A.Abdurasulov [37], X.Ziyoev [38], Q.Rajabov [39], R.Nurullin [40], I.Alimov [41], D.Ziyaeva [42]

For example, describing the events of seizing the Khan of Khiva by Russia Kh.Ziyoev’s scientific investigations paid great attention that time. Kh.Ziyoev points in the story «Struggle against Russian attack in Turkistan» establishing the power in the Emir of Bukhara and the Khan of Kakand and the history of seizing the Khan of Khiva. The author registered that the rights of the dependent Emir of Bukhara limited more than the right of the Khan of Khiva especially [43].

D.Ziyaeva’s educational manual which was devoted to the history of depending of the Emir of Bukhara and the Khan of Khiva to Russia was described the system of management of the State of the Khan and taking the place colonized government [44].

In the period of Independence the cultural life also is investigated with new information in the Khan of Khiva.

For example, S.Khasanova’s «The world mirror of enlightenment of Khorezm» story’s 4th chapter was given interesting information about poet, historian and educators who lived in half of the 19th century beginning of the 20th century, they are Said Mukhammad Raximkhon — Feruz, Komil Khorazmiy, Mukhammad Rasul Mirzo, Axmadjon Tabibiy, Avaz Utar o‘g‘li, Abdurazzoq Faqiriy va Mukhammad Yusuf Bayoniy [45].

In Independence years several articles about the historical events were announced in the Khan of Khiva by historian scientists in half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. In this case, we’ll give the following scientists’ articles: J.Toshqulov [46], G.Nikitenko [47], SH.Voxidov [48], K.Sariboev [49], Q.Rajabov [50], A.YAzberdiev [51], SH.Bekchonov [52], N.Polvonov [53] and others.

For example, it’s described in the 20th century in the Khan of Khiva the Turkmens leader Kurban Mamed Sardor Junaidkhan’s (1857–1938) struggle against Bolsheviks’s government Q.Rajabov’s article «Junaidkhan and independent action in Khorezm».

K.Rajabov criticized Junaidkhan is a leader of the Action of National Independence in the Soviet period. The author’s opinion, Junaidkhan has shown his ability to manage the tribe with himself.

For example investigator S.Saburova’s article was described the problems of paying the salary the servants who works in the Palace, ranks and position, administrative-local structure and the system of the management of the Khan [54].

But, the author removed the problem of the Khan of Khiva being dependent in this period and its results.

In the first book of new history of Uzbekistan it was given new information about events of seizing the Khan of Khiva by Russia [55]. In this story it was not paid attention to the policy of Russian colonizing, public-political, economic status in dependent period of the Khan of Khiva.

In the second book of new history of Uzbekistan it was described political struggles in 1917–1920, mixing internal affairs in the Khan, turning over the Khan’s government by the Red Army, setting up the Soviet Government [56].

The theme’s analysis shows that the period of the former Soviet system faked and it was given false information about public-poilitical actions, and historical events in half of the 19th century the second half of 20th century,

It is shown to approach to describe as new as and checking the problems of learning little the analysis theme on this story.

 

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