Библиографическое описание:

Саетгалиева Г. Э. Monitoring of the Sterlitamaksky District of Bashkortostan Arable Lands [Текст] // Экономическая наука и практика: материалы II междунар. науч. конф. (г. Чита, февраль 2013 г.). — Чита: Издательство Молодой ученый, 2013. — С. 85-86.

At present, decrease of soil fertility and worsening of arable lands conditions is going on in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Total losses of soil humus amount to 100 mln tons, annual losses of humus average 3 mln tons. Soil degradation processes occur in Sterlitamaksky district, too. Land fund of the district totals 222 160 ha with 129 328 ha (58.2 %) of ploughland. Control of soil fertility condition has been carried out since 1965 by complete agrochemical inspection [3].

As shown by our analysis, on completing the 1 st inspection cycle 67.8 % of ploughland were referred to the lands provided with mobile P at mid level, 18.5 % - at low level, and 13.7 % - at high level. Beginning with the 1 st to the 6 th cycle (1967-1998) reduction of soils with low content of soil P took place but during the years that followed the increase of areas with low P content was observed which could be connected with the role of fertilization. Changes in the content of exchangeable K in ploughland soils were recorded. As the result, by the 3 rd inspection cycle areas with mid-level content of exchangeable K made 1.4 % and ploughlands with the increased content grew up to 98.6 %. But during the 5 th inspection cycle a tendency for diminishing the share of ploughland with the increased exchangeable K was observed which was due to the deficiency of the fertilizers applied. In 1993 58 kg of mineral fertilizers were applied per ha and in 2008 - 49 kg. In 1986 humus content averaged 8.8 %. In the years that followed decrease of humus content up to 6.6 % was observed. Areas with low humus content make 83.7 % and only 3.3 % are the areas with the increased humus content.

Since in recent years the study of the quality of the land was not performed in full, firm conclusions on the characteristics of the quality of the land to do is difficult. But based on the monitoring indicators, it can be noted that the quality of land continues to deteriorate. There has been a gradual decrease in the content of phosphorus, potassium, humus in arable layer of soil [1]. Also increasing each year of the area of degraded and disturbed lands. And this is connected with the production activities of man. The deterioration of the land also is connected with a sharp reduction in funding of the processes of land reclamation and chemicalization, land management and environmental protection measures. Significant damage to soil fertility causes water and wind erosion.

Calculations have shown that in Sterlitamaksky district with the annual provision of 284 000 tons of manure, 19 000 tons of green manure crop, 205 000 tons of straw the deficiency of organic fertilizers equals 250 000 tons, the annual demand for organic fertilizers being 758 000 tons. To cover the leaching of nutrients it is necessary to apply 4 900 tons of N, 5 900 tons of P, and 4 200 tons of K anually. It is also necessary to carry out soil liming at 8 200 ha. At present the yield of organic fertilizers cannot provide favourable balance of soil organic material. Thus the feasible way of reproducing soil humus condition is application of green manure crop (straw) and increase of perennial grasses seeding. To eliminate the causes of soil fertility decrease, to provide humus increase with greater content of nutrients in it, it is necessary to use actively No-till soil - protecting, resource - saving technology which permits to stop soil degradation by reducing soil erosion and to raise humus content.


References:

1. State (national) report on the status and use of lands in the Republic of Bashkortostan [Text]: Federal state unitary enterprise «the Earth», 2011. - 236.

2. Official site of Sterlitamak region of the Republic of Bashkortostan [Electronic resource]. - Mode of access: http://www.sterlitamakadm.ru/ 20.12.2012.

3. Safin H.M., Sitdikov F.M. Modern condition of agricultural lands of the Republic of Bashkortostan. // The materials of conference «Sustainable development of territories: theory and practice». - Ufa: Gil, 2009. - With. 217-219.

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