Библиографическое описание:

Суярова З. Ш. Some problems in learning phrasal verbs // Молодой ученый. — 2015. — №13. — С. 713-715.

This paper illustrates some problems and difficulties that learners come across in learning phrasal verbs. The article suggests some explanations which help to get to know the differences of separable and non-separable phrasal verbs, word order, two-word verbs, and etc, and each of these explanations are supported with examples.

Key words: word order, verbs,, two-word verbs, usage of prepositions, the verbs put, give, take, look, run, show, grammatical errors etc.

 

Phrasal verbs are verbs that consist of a verb and a particle and they together create one meaning, for example put on, look up. Particles are prepositions or adverbs. Some of the most common phrasal verb particles are about, at, away, down, off, on, out, to, up and etc. There are more than 5000 phrasal verbs and related noun and adjective forms in use in English.

Phrasal verbs are either separable or non-separable. Unfortunately, there is no rule that will help learners to look at a phrasal verb and always know whether it is separable or non-separable.

Separable phrasal verbs. Separable phrasal verbs can be separated by their object. When the object is a noun, it is usually entirely optional whether the object is placed between the verb and the particle or placed after the particle. Both sentences are correct:

Jane took her shoes off. Jane took off her shoes.

However, when a pronoun is used instead of a noun, the pronoun must be placed between the verb and the particle: Jane took them off. But the sentence “Jane took off them” is not correct

But in one type of sentence, separable phrasal verbs must be separated when the phrasal verb has two objects:

She put a blanket on. She put on a blanket. She put a blanket on the bed.

The sentence “She put on a blanket the bed.” is not correct.

Nonseparable phrasal verbs. Nonseparable phrasal verbs cannot be separated by their object: He ran into a tree. “He ran a tree into” is not correct.

come from. 1. When you come from a place, you were born there or lived there previously. When you come from a family or a social situation, your past experience helps to explain your present attitudes and behavior.

My friend comes from Africa, so he's used to hot weather.

Kate had a difficult childhood. She came from a broken home.

2. When something comes from a source, that is where it originated.

The word «auditorium» comes from a Latin word.

He heard a strange sound coming from the engine.

figure... out (the object can be a noun or a noun clause)When you figure out something, such as the answer to a question, the solution to a problem, or why a person is a certain way or acts a certain way, you think about and succeed in understanding it.

Tom is so hostile all the time. I can't figure him out.

I looked everywhere for my ring, but I couldn't figure out where I put it.

give... back (to) When you return something to someone, you give it back.

Can I use your book? I'll give it back after I have read it.

Nick, give that toy back to your sister right now!

look for. When you look for things or people, you try to find them.

I looked for you at the party, but I didn't see you.

Excuse me, can you help me? I'm looking for Navoi street?.

put... on.When you place something on or apply something to your body, you

1.      put it on. I put on my new jeans before going out.

She forgot to put suntan lotion on, and now he's as red as a lobster.

2.      put... on. When you place something on or apply something to another surface, you put it on.

I put the book on the table.

My uncle put too much fertilizer on his lawn and now he has to cut it twice a week.

3.      put... on. When you attach or affix something to another thing, you put it on.

The Wilson’s put a new roof on their house last year.

I told the tailor to put red buttons on the dress he's making for me.

4.      put... on. When you put on weight, you gain weight

I need to go on a diet. I've been putting on a lot of weight lately.

5.      put...on. When you organize or perform something for other people's entertainment, such as a play or a concert, you put it on.

The club more than put on a show to raise money for the party

That play hasn't been put on in more than 200 years

6.      put...on. (informal) When youput people on, you kid or tease them.

You won the lottery? You're putting me on! Don't put me on — tell me the truth.

put-on n. Something done with the intention of fooling or deceiving people is a put-on.

He didn't really win the lottery. It was all a big put-on to impress his girlfriend.

1.      run into. 1.When you are driving and hit another vehicle or something near the road, such as a tree or a telephone pole, you run into it.

Peter was driving too fast, and he ran into a telephone pole. Mary was run into by a drunk driver.

2.      run into. When you meet people unexpectedly or unintentionally you run into them. Bump into is the same as run into.

We ran into my friend and her mother at the supermarket yesterday.

3.      run into. When you unexpectedly encounter difficulties or problems, you run into them.

I thought it would be easy to fix my car, but I've been running into problems.

Jennifer ran into one problem after another at work today.

4.      run into. When the total of something grows to a large amount or number, it runs into that amount or number.

If you fixed everything on that old car that needs fixing, it would run into hundreds of dollars.

The number of starving people in the country ran into millions.

1.      show up. When you appear somewhere, you show up. Turn up is similar to show up.

I was supposed to meet my sister for lunch, but she hasn't shown up yet.

Over a hundred people showed up for the news conference.

2.      show up. When something appears or becomes visible, it shows up.

It's hard to photograph polar bears because they don't show up well against the snow.

The spots won't show up until the last stages of the disease.

1.      take...off pv. When you remove something from your body, you take it off.

I was so tired when I got home that I took my clothes off and went straight to bed. Take off your shoes. You're getting mud on the carpet.

2.      take...off. When you remove something from a surface, you take it off.

I took the book off the table. You need to take the old wax off the floor before you wax it again.

3.      take...off. When you remove something from something it is attached or affixed to, you take itoff.

Jane always takes the skin off chicken before she cooks it. After Jane took the flat tire off her bicycle, she put on the new one.

4.      take... off. When you take time off from work or study, you do something different, instead of working or studying.

I can't work tomorrow. I have to take the day off for some tests at the hospital. Their company always lets them take the week between Christmas and New Year's Day off.

5.      take off. When an airplane leaves the ground and flies up into the air, it takes off.

Our plane took off an hour late because of the snow.

Put on your seat belt; we're taking off now.

Takeoff n. Takeoff is when an airplane leaves the ground and flies up into the air. The takeoff was delayed because of the snow.

6.      take off. When a business or other organized activity becomes very successful, it takes off. The new restaurant's business is taking off because it got a good review in the newspaper.

If this business takes off, we could make a lot of money.

7.      take off (informal) When you leave suddenly or quickly, you take off.

After he found out the FBI was looking for him, he took off in a hurry. This film's boring — let's take off.

 

References:

 

1.                  Michael Mc Carthy, Felicity O’Dell. English phrasal Verbs in Use.

2.                  Кунин А. В. Фразеология современного английского языка.

3.                  Parkinson D. Really learn 100 phrasal verbs.

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