Библиографическое описание:

Баротова М. Б. Tasavvuf // Молодой ученый. — 2015. — №10. — С. 1461-1464.

Tasavvuf, a philosophy of religious teaching has been greatly appreciated by many for centuries, but has not been valued by the people whose ancestors created it. Some of the aims of Tasavvuf are “Godseeking”, knowing “The Highest Truth”, and “being in direct communication with God”. In order to achieve this one should have known the following: a) zuhd “to deny oneself in everything” (to deny a pleasant life), b) to be a Sufi, that is to reach spiritual completeness, to forget about oneself and recognize only God (Allah al — Haq, that is God is the Truth).

In Tasavvuf, a Sufi was a person who devoted himself to seeking God. He followed all the rules of this religious teaching in order to achieve the aim of being in direct communication with God and knowing the Highest Truth.

The Tasavvuf philosophy was created in the 7th — 8th centuries in Arabia. Before the creation of Islamic religion, but when the prophet Muhammad was still alive, Arabic tribes were engaged in cattle — breeding. Even though the conditions of their lives were hard, the Arabs conquered various rich countries in Asia and Europe. Ibn Kutaiba who conquered Central Asia used to melt dishes and jewelry made of gold and silver and sends them to Arabia. That’s why the Arabs built enormous palaces spending the wealth they had taken. The subjected people had to pay them very high taxes and had to work like slaves. It was however against the Prophet Muhammad’s Islamic teachings.

The Tasavvuf philosophy stood against this ruthless injustice. The representatives of this religious-philosophical order condemned the inequality and injustice they saw among the people. Their idea was to urge the people to work in order to earn their own living. This social humanistic idea dominated the Tasavvuf philosophy. Later this teaching developed in Central Asia and with its rich content, social importance prevailed other religious- philosophical teachings in Iran, Arabia and other countries. That’s why the various ideas of Tasavvuf which had been shaped in Central Asia spread to so many other countries. Though this philosophical teaching was considered to be religious-mystic, its high spiritual character and positive influence on the peoples of Central Asia have been incomparable. The development of Tasavvuf is connected with the name of the great scientist, theologian, famous philosopher and poet Ahmad ibn Umar Abdul Janob Najmiddin Kubro Al-Khivaki A1 Khorazmi. Part of his name “Najmiddin Kubro” was given to him as a scientific degree taking into consideration his ability and talent. “Najmiddin” means “great”. Kubrovia Tarikat (the order of religious perfection) based on Najmiddin Kubro’s philosophical teaching spread in many countries of Mast and West, at the result of which such orders as Firdavsia, Nuria, Ruknia, llamadonia, Nurbakhshia, Nematulloia were created. Kubrovia leaching said that religion and the physical world were closely connected. Following this teaching the people had to trust God, to be honest, humane, grasping, be remorseful for sins and give up sexual feelings. Moral rules of Kubrovia Teaching have preserved their educational importance.

Tasavvuf is not only Godseeking, at the same time it is a great philosophy which made a great contribution in the development of the mankind’s spiritual and moral world outlook. This philosophy was created by the Moslem world. Even today this philosophy is actual in strengthening national faith, in loving native land, native home, native language, national culture (art, literature), and history and in recognizing Islam.

Koshifi analysed every letter of the word Tasavvuf: T is for tajrid that is not to want unnecessary things; S is for sidku-safo that is devotion; V is for vafo that is faithfulness; F is for fano that is perishableness; A is for Alloh that is God. At the end Tasavvuf means to love God, to be faithful to him. Tasavvuf is a teaching which demands to implement the idea in life, to be engaged in some employment.

Above it was said that the development of the Tasavvuf philosophy is connected with Najmiddin Kubro or Kubrovia Tarikat, and one of the latter’s orders is Hamadonia Teaching. It is desirable to speak about this teaching as Saint Bahouddin Nakshband’s teachers Abd al Kholik Gjizduvoni and Khoja Ahmad Yassavi were taught by the founder of the Hamadonia Teaching Yusuf Hamadoni.

Saint Khoja Yusuf Hamadoni (1049 — AD/441–535 A.H. (after Hijra)) was a proponent of the moral significance of the Nakshbandia Tarikat. He was the first in a line of sheikhs. He was born in Iran in the region of Hamadon, in the village of Buzanzhird, Home of lurs and kurds. As a child he studied jurisprudence in Baghdad. Soon he mastered a wide spectrum of subjects, particularly rationalistic sciences. Unexpectedly he gave up scientific investigations to devote himself to the service of God and to leading his contemporaries to God. Yusuf Hamadoni studied in Isfahan (Iran) and Bukhara. He was welcomed in Iraq, Khorazm, Khuroson and Moverannahr. He used to live in Kuhi Zahr. In Tasavvuf Khoja Yusuf Hamadoni was connected with sheikh Abd Allah Juvaini, Sheikh Khasan Kanoi and Sheikh Abu Ali Foramadi. Sheikh Abu Abd Allah Juvaini put hirka (the light robe) on Khoja Yusuf Hamadoni. “History” written by Imam Yofi says that Yusuf Hamadoni was a miracle worker. He died in 1140, his grave is in Mavr. He had four khalifas (assistants): 1) Khoja Abd Allah Barki, 2) Khoja Hasan Andaki, 3) Khoja Ahmad Yassavi, 4) Saint Khoja Jahon Khoja Abd A1 Kholik Gjizduvoni. Khoja Yusuf Hamadoni spent the majority of his life in Khuroson and Moverannahr. He directed his followers who were taught by him. They are famous in Bukhara, one of them Ahmad Yassavi whose origins were Turkik sheikhs. The second, the founder of the Khojagon Tarikat Abd AI Kholik Gjizduvoni.

Famous Imam Yusuf Hamadoni’s teaching said:

Be careful of your every breathing.

Don’t be ignorant, pay attention to your every step.

Walk and travel along your native land.

Be among your people and avoid solitude.

The author of the book “Matlab at Tolibin (The Pupils’ Wish) Abdal Abbos Muhammad Ibn Tojuddin says that Khoja Yusuf Hamadoni was from the family of Ayub Ibn Al Bakhid Ibn Abd Al Bosit Bin Bokir Muhammad Bin Ismail Bin Sufi Imam Azam Abu Hanifa Kufi Ibn Sobit Bin Gies Bin Yazidi Djarid bin Shakhriyor bin Parviz ibn Nushirvon. Abdul Abbos Mukhammad Ibn Tojuddin says that Khoja Yusuf Hamadoni performed the Hadj thirty seven times (walked to Mecca as a pilgrim). He performed the khatm of the Koran a thousand times, each time in song. He read books of tafsir (interpretation of the Koran), Hadith, usul and furu seven times. He was a singer of the Koran (Kalom Allah that is the word of God). The book “Matlab at Tolibin” says that Khoja Yusuf Ilamadoni at the age of 18 went to Baghdad and studied theology Jurisprudence from Abu Is’hok. It is said that when Saint Khoja Yusuf Hamadoni came to a village the wine (sharob) in sharbatkhonas (the rooms where wine was sold) turned to vinegar. When Khoja Yusuf Hamadoni used to leave Khumson for Bukhara and when he was passing the Amuya'river (Amudarya), all the wine in Bukhara region turned to vinegar. Seeing this miracle the people of Bukhara went out to meet him. Sheikh Najib Addin Bargash Sherozi said that whenever he found one of the sheikhs’ manuscripts, he would read it, master it, and try to discover whose words they were and what book they came from in order to know more. When he read them he was very happy. Once he dreamt about a grey — bearded old man who had sacred face. He entered Khanagah and went to the place where sacred ablutions were performed. He wore a white robe and on it there was written the sura (a chapter from Koran) “Oyat al Kursi” (a verse from Koran). It was written in golden water. He followed the old man who took off his robe and gave it to sheikh Najib Addin. The latter had a green robe too. On this robe the sura “Oyat al Kursi” was also written in golden water. The old man took it off and gave it to him and told him to hold these robes while he performed the vusu (washed himself before praying in order to be clean before God). When the old man returned he said that he wanted to give him a robe and asked him to choose one. Sheikh Najib Addin said that he could take any of the robes and the old man gave him the green one which he put on him with his own hands. He put on his own white robe and asked him whether he recognized him. He said that he didn’t. Then the old man said that he was the author of those manuscripts he had read and his name was Yusuf Hamadoni. He said that those manuscripts were from the book “Zinnat al Hayot (The Beauty of Life). I le said that he had books which were better than that one. Those books were “Manozil as — Solikin” (The Residences of Sufis), “Manozil as Soyirin” (The Residences of Travelers). He awoke there and felt very happy.

The brightest star of Tasavvuf philosophy was Khoja Ahmad Yassavi. It is said that every epoch creates its great people. Generous earth (land, soil), moral unity, meeting of the happy stars in the sky, historical necessity altogether creates great people. Alisher Navoi says that Khoja Ahmad Yassavi who was born in Turkey was the great person who could achieve this aim. The destiny made him responsible for Turkic people to be kept from destruction. His philosophical teaching attracted Turkic people. They adopted Muhammedinism. They were taught to unite, to be in direct communication with God. This way Yassavia Tarikat appeared on the basis of the great poet, thinker Ahmad Yassavia’s teaching (12th century) and shaped in the epoch of Mongolian yoke (oppression), that’s why despondency dominated in this teaching.

Following Yassavia Tarikat the people were taught to unite, sufis were taught to be in direct communication with God, to attain completeness, to know the Highest Truth. This way Ahmad Yassavi became the spiritual father of the Turkic people. Turkic sheikh Arslon Bobo was Ahmad Yassavi’s teacher. After his death Ahmad Yassavi went to Bukhara, the centre of Turkistan, to Imam Yusuf Hamadoni. Khoja Ahmad Yassavi was promoted and attained the rank of khalfa (the assistant of the sheikh who followed the Sufi Tarikat). It was a great honor for him. His aim was to propagandize Koran and Hadith which were the bases for one of the great world cultures. He dreamt the people to devote their lives to God’s love. He used to say: “There must be God in your heart, worship Him. God cares for the people of the world, if you have God in your heart, you must do the same”. As Khoja Ahmad Yassavi was a perfect, irreproachable man he cared for the people of the world and wanted them to be perfect, complete, to achieve perfection. He called the people upon being friendly to each other, to care for each other, to help each other. Mahmud Koshghari, the creator of the Turkic dictionary says the following about Khoja Ahmad Yassavi:

Poor Ahmad’s words never grow old.

If they go under earth they’ll never rot.

Such great poets as Yunus Emro, Lutfi, Nasimi, Navoi, Fuzuli, Mashrab, Sufi Olloyor, Huvaido were influenced by Khoja Ahmad Yassavi’s teaching and followed his example. They followed his philosophical teaching which helped in recognizing oneself, in understanding God while alone, seeing the world in the face of God. It means that Yassavi’s teaching taught to love the whole world: people, nature, animals.

Khoja Ahmad Yassavi says that in order to see the face of God one has to know what love is, not falling in love one can’t see God’s face. The main idea of life is to be able to fall in love and be faithful. It is the only way of being able to see God.

Khoja Ahmad Yassavi with his humane philosophy re-established Turkic Moslem Culture. Uzbek people are proud of Ahmad Yassavi and consider him to be the founder of the Uzbek culture. His words “Seeing orphans don’t offend them, seeing poor don’t injure them” call upon care for orphans, poor and lonely people and love towards them.

Abd Al Kholik Gjizduvoni was the Founder of Khojagon Sufi Tarikat. Abd Al Kholik Gjizduvoni, his honorary name was Khojai Khojagon, was born in 1103 in Gjizduvon village, Bukhara region. He lived 200 years before the birth of Bahouddin. He was a handsome, tall man with a large head and thick eyebrows. His father was Khoja Abduljamil Rumi Rahmatulloh Alai Imom. He lived in Rum. He was the scientist of visible and invisible sciences. Once he dreamt about Khizr Alaihissalom, the latter told him go to Bukhara to the district Gjizduvon, there he would have a son, he would name him Abdukholik. Khoja Abduljamil Rumi left Rum for Bukhara and in 1103 he had a son born there whom he named Abdul Kholik. Khoja Abdul Kholik Gjizduvoni was brought up in the religious family. He learned Koran when he was 9 years old. He took an active part in dervishes zikr when he was 10. Imom Sadriddin, his early teacher was educated in tafsir. Abdul Kholik Gjizduvoni met him in Bukhara and was taught to tafsir. Later Khizr Alaihissalom taught him “Zikri Khufi”. In the process of “Zikri Khufi” the prayer should be alone. His body must be quiet; he must not move any part of his body, lest the devil should notice his praying. So Khizr Alaihissalom adopted Khoja Abdul Kholik Gjizduvoni. Abdul Kholik Gjizduvoni became his adopted son. Abdul Kholik Gjizduvoni devoted his life to Godseeking. When he was 22 he met Abu Yokub Yusuf Hamadoni in Bukhara. Soon Abu Yokub Yusuf Hamadoni became his teacher; the latter noticed that “God’s Zikr” was placed deep in his heart. Abdul Kholik Gjizduvoni served under Yusuf Hamadoni until the latter left for Khuroson. Abdul Kholik Gjizduvoni enriched his master’s teaching and gave eight stages of Khojagon Tarikat.

The first stage: Be merry every minute (in Tajik language: Khush dar dam that is every breath must be vigilant and pleasant).

The second stage: Pay attention to your step (in Tajik: Nazar bar kadam that is not to do anything without thinking, to be vigilant).

The third stage: Travel along your native land (in Tajik: Safar dar Vatan). The followers of Khojagon Tarikat first travelled, served under some wise sheikhs for many years until they learned everything they wanted. If they had met such a wise sheikh in their land they did not travel, they served under him and were taught by him. When they attained required habits in Tarikat, permanent way of life and travelling were equal to them. That’s why Abdul Kholik Gjizduvoni said: “Safar dar Vatan”: travelling not in the foreign countries, but in his native land.

The fourth stage: Be among the people, but your heart must be with God (in Tajik: Khilvat dar anjuman that is neither the trade nor the other engagements should distract man’s heart from God). It was the motto of Khojagon Tarikat in Tajik:

Dast ba koru Dil ba yor, which means: Hands do the job, the heart is with God.

The fifth stage: Speak about God in heart (in Tajik: Yod kard, which means to speak about God in heart), and etc.

Khoja Abd Al Kholik Gjizduvoni studied sufism under the guidance of Saint Khoja Yusuf Hamadoni. He achieved great success in sufism and his teacher gave him the right to be a khalfa (his assistant). He was the author of many books, such as “Risolai Tarikat” (A Commentary on the Koran), “Vasiyat Nomah” (Testament) etc. In these books Abd Al Kholik Gjizduvoni, Khojai Djahon (the people loved him, trusted him and that’s why called him Khojai Djahon, that is “The Lord of the World”), interpreted the Sufi Tarikat Rules and Practice. He died and was buried in 1180 in Gjizduvan. His grave is six farsah from Bukhara. His mother was one of the daughters of the king who came from the family of Malik.

Khoja Abd Al KJiolik Gjizduvoni’s followers were famous sheikhs Khoja Orif Mohi Tobon Revgari, Khoja Mahmud Faghnavi, Khoja Ali Rometani, Khoja Muhammad Boboi Samosi, Khoja Said Mir Kulol Bukhori, and Khoja Muhammad Bahouddin Ibn Said Jaloliddin Nakshband.

Sufi Tarikat became famous among the people of the world. Khoja Langar and Sufi Chuhyan also were Abd Al Kholik Gjizduvoni’s mureds (pupils, or those who follow sufi’s way of life).

Khoja Ahmad Sadoki was Abd Al Kholik Gjizduvoni’s first khalfa. He was from Bukhara. His grave is 20 farsah from Bukhara in the place called “Moghiyon”. Khoja Avlioi Kabir was Abd Al Kholik Gjizduvoni’s second khalfa. He was also from Bukhara. His grave was in the place called “Burzi Ayor”. Khoja Sulaimon Karmani was Abd Al Kholik Gjizduvoni’s third khalfa. His grave is in Karmana (in Navoi). He was one of the wise sheikhs of his time. Khoja Orif Ar Revgari was Abd Al Kholik Gjizduvoni’s fourth khalfa. The village Revgari is 36–38 farsah from Bukhara. It is in Shafrikan district. Khoja Orif Revgari had lived for over 100 years, he died in 1259.

 

References:

 

1.      М. Хазраткулов. Тасаввуф, Д.1988г.

2.      Фанханги забони тожики, том, Москва, 1969

3.      И. П. Петрушевский. Ислам в Иране в веках. Л.1966г.

4.      Е. Э. Бертелью Суфизм и суфийская литература. М.1965г.

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