Библиографическое описание:

Бурханов Б. Ж., Тулегенова А. М., Бейсенбайкызы Л., Абуова М. М. The role of science and education in the management of solid waste in the region // Молодой ученый. — 2015. — №7.2. — С. 17-20.

Economic level of the country and its competitiveness on the world scene in the first place depends on the intellectual potential of society gained from the development of science and education.

The system of education and science in Kazakhstan should correspond to the purposes and principles of sustainable development in particular in training, are able to solve environmental problems.

In the experience of developed countries, it should be noted that universities play a special role in the system of scientific research engaged not only the education and training of specialists, but also basic and apptied research in the natural and engineering sciences and humanities.

Accelerated industrial and innovative development of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the associated expansion of production capacity, the introduction of new enterprises and the growth of consumption of goods and services to the public involve the formation and accumulation of large amounts of waste production and consumption. [1, с. 3]

Therefore at this time, the priority is to study the issue of waste management scientists and universities in the country to develop a regional policy, taking into account ecological, economic, social and demographic situation.

The effectiveness of the implementation of this policy will depend on the actual transition to sustainable social ecological and economic development of the region.

The reduction in the accumulation of domestic and industrial waste is one of the main objectives of a number strategic documents, such as the concept of ecological security of Kazakhstan for 2004-2015., Concept of Transition to sustainable Development for 2007-2024., Branch program ``Zhasyl damu``on 2010-2014., territorial strategic plans and programs on waste management. Despite the abundance of programs, we still have not established a system of waste production and consumption. [2, с. 2]

Across the country, there pockets of illegal dumping, it can be seen outside the town or village the public is not aware of the latest methods of disposal actual formation of solid domestic waste (hereinafter-MSW) there is no single database record data on education, collection and disposal of waste production and consumption.

Therefore in  the strategic documents of the  Ministry of Environment and water Resources of Kazakhstan in the period 2009-2011, the volume of accumulated waste production and consumption ranges from 22 billion. To 43billion tons.

According to the latest information from the Ministry of Environment and water resources of Kazakhstan, the country has already accumulated more than 100million.Tons of solid waste. Annual growth was been about 5-6 million tons, of which processed more than 5%, and the rest are placed so called polygons or simply if the dumps.

In fact, landfills for solid waste collection does not hold waster.

In practice, it`s highlighted on the outskirts of the site, where all. Imported solid waste consumption which due to the lack of processing burned, and some carried by the wind across the country.

And the fact that burning plastic bottles, plastic bags, when burned emit toxic gas causing the risk of developing cancer nobody cares. And today, someone continues to burn the contents of dustbins poisoning the environment with a mixture of poisonous dioxins and other derivatives.

During long-term storage of solid waste can be converted into other substances with different physicochemical and toxic properties. This leads to the appearance of new landfills environmentally hazardous substances that pose a serious threat to nature and human health. Biogenic effects of solid waste on the environment create favorable conditions for the breeding of rodent’s insects and microorganisms, resulting in reprimanded bacteria and viruses over long distances.

Research conducted by Russian scientists found that around landfills dynamic zone formed halos multicomponent contamination of surface and groundwater with high temperatures toxic filtered (about 400-500C0 ) arising out of the landfill. Heat the filtrate caused the exothermic chemical reaction in the waste.

Concurrently a depressing effect on the near – surface layers of the atmosphere, gaseous compounds, dioxins, furans and  other components are formed by chemical reactions in the interior of the landfill.

As a Nile, ground layers of air above the solid waste landfill contaminated by dust, foot, pesticides and other fine particles, that rise up creating air currents and pollute the environment in the landfill area within a radius of 3km. Geological environment and especially the unsaturated zone around the landfill are experiencing increased stress.

In developed countries, in the future, it is planned to abandon the method of disposal of solid waste landfill. [3, с. 4]

Currently, in the Republic of virtually all waste disposed of in landfill for disposal, thus in addition to the landfill of Astana, no landfill does not meet the health standards and environmental standards burial provided SN RK 1.04-15-2002.

Date on municipal waste landfill in the territory of Kyzylorda region represented by the department of Environment of Kyzylorda region of the Ministry of Environment and water Resources of Kazakhstan are shown in Table №1.

Table 1

Date on municipal waste landfills Kyzylorda region

Name of field

Number of settlements

Population thousand pers.

Number of municipal waste landfill.

The indicator isn`t legalized polygons

%

The amount of waste placed in landfills, kl.

Disposal com.waste thus

Decisions on the availability laity of land acquisition for landfills

The total accumulation of waste 1 pers,t

Accumulated waste for 2013 1 person, T

only

Legit-mated

Not legalized

All

2013

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Kyzylorda

158

721

45

3

142

97.9

913.2

181.4

13.3

142

1.26

0.25

 

As can be seen from this table, only 2% of polygons legalized in 13 settlements existent space for solid waste.

Not avoidable in the Republic of musorperegruzochnye (sorting) station, waste sorting and recovery of secondary material resources and biodegradable fraction isn`t utilized to produce «green» energy and compost. In practice, the undeveloped system of separate waste collection and sorting of solid waste at the source of education.

Table №2 shows the number of information collection and disposal of solid waste , provided by department of Environment and ISO BP RK, from which it follows in only 9 of the 158 settlements use the services of companies for the collection and removal of solid waste, and the remaining 149 villages, representing 95% this kind of services aren`t covered.

Table 2

Information about the collection and disposal of municipal waste Kyzylorda region

Name of field

Number of regions and cities

Number of companies

Number of settlements

Number of settlements covered services

Volumes of waste disposal for the 2013 tones

Number of settlements, which doesn`t provide services for the collection and disposal of waste materials

Indicator settlements pips, which doesn`t provide services %

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Kyzylorda

9

18

158

9

181.4

149

94.3

 

And because of this it should be noted that.

-        The absence of active government support for the issue of solid waste management, including collection, transport and processing:

-        Is not an effective regulatory framework:

-        Poor infrastructure of the circulation of waste:

-        Underdevelopment of waste collection points of the population:

-        Lack of economic incentives to involve secondary resources extracted from solid waste.

No tenement of the rate of  accumulation of solid waste per capital in the country, so the regions have a wide range of indicators of  annual output per person per year, which distorts the date in the collection and reporting.

In particular in Kyzylorda differentiated rate of accumulation were last approved still November 21.1999, №1033, although according to the standards they should be reviewed every 5 years, and if necessary after 2 years. If should be noted that almost all landfills Kazakhstan no scale waste receiving area and their tonnage set by transfer cubic meters per ton, and the bulk weight is taken from 200 to 300 kg. While in Europe their volume weight is about 100-150 kg.

Analysis of the morphological composition of waste by region shows large differences in its composition and its share. Based on the morphological composition of the average number of secondary materials contained in the solid waste is about 30% of the paper and paperboard, 15-20% glass, 10.5% metal, 30% plastic, 15-20% others. In industrialized countries packaging is 30% by weight and 50% by volume, and an appreciable amount up bulky waste. (furniture, appliances ete.)

Information on the morphological composition of MSW Kyzylorda, taken on the monitoring date LLP `Ibrayhan and K-LTD` and are listed in Table number 3.            

Table 3

Information on the morphological composition of solid  waste entering the landfill Kyzylorda for 2013 (presented LLP  `Ibrayhan and K-LTD`)

Name of waste

Taken to the landfill in 2013 (thus Tons)

Composition,%

Paper cardboard

Polymer waste

Glass

Metal

Biowaste (wood)

Food

Other

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

TBO

42.0

22-25

35-37

15-18

2-3

3-5

8-10

2-5

 

One to the fact that at the present time in the Republic is not  adjusted separate collection of solid waste `at source` of waste, to assess its cost – effective nests is difficult , there are no recommendations for the most part of the system of separation waste collection for recycling and sale of recovered materials.

In this regard, an important component is the rehabilitation and development of reception centers of secondary resources, thereby reducing the amount of solid waste and the complexity of processing.

This way of sorting MSW, is the most economical construction costs of sorting centers and enterprises. In a situation where there is a need to save all kinds of expenses the use of secondary resources provides cost savings in the production because into the commercial production of secondary resources costs are generally much cheaper than primary resources.

Date on the rate of accumulation of waste per capita in rural areas does not exist. Due to lack of date at a rate of MSW. Morphological composition of waste in rural areas in general has not been studied. From practice it is known that it is dominated by organic waste and a smaller proportion of plastics, packaging materials, paper and cardboard. In rural areas, an organic part of the waste is not usually placed at the landfill or landfill as a rule; a large proportion of them is used to feed animals or composted at home.

Furthermore wood paper and other combustible materials are used for heating. The analysis shows that only a small fraction of solid waste in an average of 3-5 % in the Republic is currently undergoing a recovery, the rest of waste incinerated or placed in landfills without separation into components, with the means at their part of secondary material resources are lost.

Of course, the experience of foreign countries the issue of foreign countries, the issue of solid waste disposal must be submitted to the competitive environment, but some market relations can not effectively regulate the process of waste management. We should learn from the experience of the EU countries where recycling issues addressed together by a combination of state and market regulation mechanicals, taking into account the specifics of the region.

At the moment, in the Republic there is no enterprise for thermal or biological waste, so the production of `green` energy from MSW is not established. The first pilot project to build a plant mechanical- biological waste treatment  in the current year is provided in Aktau, he will become the first company that can produce ``green`` energy from MSW using the technology of anaerobic decomposition of organic waste fractions.

In the meantime waste disposal in landfills is the main method of permanent disposal. The majority of municipal solid waste is not sorted for reuse and recycling, and dump them in landfills.

Since burying method of treatment of solid domestic treatment of solid domestic waste is not difficult, but requires large land plots considerable investments operating and transportation costs.

Waste disposal facilities in many regions of Kazakhstan, as a rule, does not meet the requirements of the Environmental Code often it`s difficult to name landfills because of over 4525 waste disposal sites in the Republic of 93% is not legalized and in fact, constitute unauthorized  landfill.

Even in cases where landfills are institutionalized, the vast majority of them are not engineering structures, which can be classified as ``sanitary landfills``.

Garbage collection and disposal Company now only in large cities. For small towns and rural areas, this type of service is almost unavailable or of poor quality.

The lack of specialized sites for sorting of municipal solid waste landfills and remoteness lead, to an increase in illegal dumping.

Only in Kyzylorda for 2013 was formed about 72.0 thousand tons of solid waste, and delivered to the landfill just 42.0 thousand. Tons, accounting for 70% of the total volume of waste generated, and the rest were placed in unauthorized places.

Therefore, for many cities in the country has become a tradition to conduct an annual spring 2 a month for cleaning illegal dumps and landscaping.

To summarize in the operation of existing landfills should be noted:

-        Lack of synthetic or clay impervious screen;

-        Placement of municipal waste together with the industrial, medical and other hazardous waste;

-        Lack of systems to collect landfill gas.

A particular problem-uncontrolled handling of hazardous household waste. Due to lack of legal framework and a centralized system for collection and neutralizing hazardous waste, virtually to one is responsible for its disposal. These wastes according to the scientists is 1% of the total weight of solid waste received for disposal in landfills. Particularly dangerous toxic waste, the rate of formation of which is growing every year. [4, с. 4]

To improve the situation with the development of waste treatment is necessary to improve the regulatory framework in the field of waste management, where it is necessary to consolidate the mechanism of responsibility of manufacturers and safe importers for the collection and safe treatment after using the product.

A mechanism is needed collecting payments from producers for the collection and processing of certain types of containers, packaging, etc.

Thus, in the present conditions the waste management of production and consumption has become an important mechanism for addressing the socio-ecological and economic problems, the severity of which is growing more rapidly than the effectiveness of measures taken to address them.

In this connection, the scope of waste management should be considered as an integral part of the regional socio-economic system, creates conditions improve ecological and economic system balance of regional development, and this matter is not unimportant science and education.

 

References:

 

1.                  Concept of environmental security, the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2004-2015. Approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan doted 03 December 2003 y. №924,

2.                  Sect oral Programmer «Zhasyl damu» for 2010-2014.

3.                  Production schedules biogas from landfills. Academy of Municipal Economy K.D.Panfilova. - Moscow 1990.

4.                  Grinin A.S., Novikov V.N. Industrial and household waste: Storage Disposal Recycling. M-Fair-Press 2002-336s.

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