Библиографическое описание:

Игейсинова Г. М. The Role of English Names in Russian Translation // Молодой ученый. — 2013. — №11. — С. 818-820.

The aim of this work lies in the fact that I want to find out different features of the translation of English proper names in English and American literature of the 19 and 20 centuries, I also want to observe the frequency of their usage in literary work. To analyze these ways of translation it is necessary to realize the following tasks:

1.      To find out the history of English proper names and their origin

2.      To define factors that determine the choice of personal names

3.      To determine (разобрать) the ways of the translation of English proper names and their peculiarities.

I have chosen this theme because not only an ordinary pupil but a professional iraiblator comes across with number of problems when translating English names into Russian. For example, in different Russian editions such names as Perceval and Guinevere are translated as Персивал and Гвиневра or Парцифаль and Джиневра. So we want to find out the ways of translation of the English names into Russian and which of them is the most popular in literature.

The practical value of this investigation lies in the fact that results of this work can help students and translators to understand the rules of the translation and to determine which of the ways is used more often nowadays, which of them is the most typical for different genres and for different authors.

So when we were realizing the tasks I found out that proper names occupy a special place in the English language and they have some information about exactly this subject and its properties. The nomenclature of modern English proper names seems peculiar and is composed of old and new, native English and borrowed, both traditional and invented names which are different from each other by structural and semantic features.

I also found out that in the ancient times different invasions, political events, reformation and religion had an influence on the names. Our research helped us to define the factors that determine the choice of personal names.

1.         The influence of fashion

-        Connection of the name with a particular social group The desire to avoid difficultes

2.         The desire to be original The influence of religion

3.         The influence of positive and negative associations with well-known historical or cultural figures

-        Relation to the place of birth

4.         The desire to avoid names that occur in set expressions The desire to give the name in honour of the closest relative

I also examined the ways of the translation of the English names into Russian and found out that there are three main ways to translate foreign personal names into Russian: transcription, that is, more or less similar picture sound form of the name; transliteration, that is playing in Cyrillic alphabetic structure of the name, and the proper translation (or tracing), involving the transfer of the name of cash lexical means.

I have analysed 12 books of the English and American writers, 6 of them created their masterpieces in the 19 century, and the other 6 writers belonged to the 20th century.

I have found 148 examples of the English names translated into Russian by different ways. I detected that the way of transcription is the most popular way among the translators. The way of transliteration is on the second place and the way of tracing is the most unpopular way.

When analysing the examples I stated the fact that even though there are more cases of die way of transcription, but in the books of the 20 ^ century translators use this way less than in the books of the 19^ century. As for the cases of the way of transliteration I can notice that this way becomes more popular in the 20^ century than in the 19^ one.

According to this fact I can put forward a hypothesis that despite the fact that transcription is still the most popular way of translation, there is a tendency of the development of the transliteration and the decrease of transcription. And may be in the 21 century the way of transliteration will be the most popular way. The further consideration will help us to confirm this hypothesis or to refute it.

Charts #3 and 4 show that there are more cases of transliteration in the English literature than in the American one.

According to these charts I can come to the conclusion that transliteration is more used when translating the texts from the English literature then from the American one.

Charts #5 and 6 show that transliteration develops and is used more often in the 20^ century than in the literature of 19 century.

In our research I also decided to observe what ways of translation were used in each book. Chart #7 shows that most of all the way of transcription was used by the translator when he worked with Robert Luis Stevenson's adventure stories. As for the transliteration, it is more used in the translation of Thomas Hardy's classic novel and

Arthur Conan Doyle's detective stories. So in the 19^ century the way of transliteration is more often used in the romantic genre while the way of transcription is used mostly in adventure literature.

In the chart #8 we can notice that the translator used the way of transliteration more often than the way of transcription when he was translating Roger Lancelyn Green's historical novel «King Arthur and his knights of the round table» and Theodor Dreiser's romantic novel «Sister Carrie». Due to this fact I can conclude that in the literature of the 20^ century transliteration as the way of translation of English proper names isn't still the most popular way but it is mostly used in historical and romantic novels.

So the thorough investigation showed that the most popular way of translation of English proper names in American and English literature of the 19^ and 20^ centuries is transcription. But at the same time I can come to the conclusion that transcription is less used in the 20 century while transliteration becomes more popular, we even can say that it increasingly develops. I stated that there are more cases of transliteration in the translation of the English literature than in the American one. In the 19^ century the way of transliteration is more often used in the romantic genre while in the literature of the 20^ century transliteration is mostly used in historical and romantic novels. So I can confirm our hypothesis that even though the way of transliteration is not so popular among the translators but it increasingly develops and may be in the translations of the literature of the 21st century the way of transliteration will be used more often than the way of transcription.

The aim of this investigation was to find out different features of the translation of English proper names in English and American literature of 19^ and 20th centuries, I also wanted to observe the frequency of their usage in literary works. To achieve this aim I examined the history of English proper names and their origin and stated that the nomenclature of English proper names is composed of old and new, native English and borrowed, both traditional and invented names which are different from each other by structural and semantic features. English names have come a long way of historical development, the way that is inextricably connected with the history of the English people and the English language. I also found out that in the ancient times different invasions, political events, reformation and religion had an influence on the names. Our investigation helped us to define the factors that determine the choice of personal names. There are nine of them: the influence of fashion, connection of the name with a particular social group, the desire to avoid difficult, discordant combinations, the desire to be the original, the influence of religion, the influence of positive and negative associations with well-known historical or cultural figures, relation to the place of birth, the desire to avoid names that occur in set expressions, the desire to give the name in honour of the closest relative. I also examined the ways of the translation of the English names into Russian and found out that there are three main ways to translate foreign personal names into

Russian: transcription, that is, more or less similar picture sound form of the name; transliteration, that is playing in Cyrillic alphabetic structure of the name, and the proper translation, involving the transfer of the name of cash lexical means.

In the third chapter we start analyzing the examples of the English proper names that I have taken from the American and English literature of the 19th and 20th centuries. We have analysed 12 books of the English and American writers, 6 of them created their masterpieces in the 19^ century the other 6 writers belonged to the 20^ century. Using the method of selection I have found 148 examples of the English names translated into Russian by different ways. The quantitative analysis detected that the way of transcription is the most popular way among the translators. The way of transliteration is on the second place and the way of tracing is the most unpopular way.

When analysing the examples I stated the fact that even though there are more cases of the way of transcription but in the books of the 20 century this way is used less than in the books of the 191'"1 century. As for the cases of the way of transliteration I noticed that this way becomes more popular in the 20th century than in the 19th. So I put forward a hypothesis that there is a tendency of the increased development of the transliteration and may be in the literature of the 21st century it will become the most popular way of translation of English proper names into Russian. Our investigation showed that there are more cases of transliteration in the translation of the English literature than in the American one. In the English literature of the 19th and 20th centuries it used more often, it also develops in the American literature but not so fast. In the 1century the way of transliteration is more often used in the romantic genre while the way of transcription is used mostly in adventure literature while in the literature of the 20th century transliteration is mostly used in historical and romantic novels. So I can confirm our hypothesis that even though the way of transliteration is not so popular among the translators but it increasingly develops and may be in the translations of the literature of the 21st century the way of transliteration will be used more often than the way of transcription.

Литература:

1.      Агапова С.А «Реальные имена собственные в переводах художественных текстов». СПБ 1993 год.

2.      Андреева Л.И «Специфика имени собственного и возможность ее использования в художественных текстах». Автореферат, Саратов 1995 год.

3.      Арнольд И.В «Стилистика современного английского языка». Л; 1981 год.

4.      Банникова И. А «Имена собственные, как фактор оформления художественного текста». Барнаул 1990год.

5.      Бернштейн И. «Английские имена в русских переводах». ИЯ. 1998 № 4

6.      Р.Л Грин «Приключения короля Артура и рыцарей круглого стола»

7.      Д. Голсуорси «Сага о Форсайтах».

8.      Д. дю Морье «Ребекка».

9.      А.К Дойл «Записки о Шерлоке Хомсе».

10.  Т. Драйзер «Сестра Керри».

11.  Р.Л Стивенсон «Остров сокровищ».

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