Библиографическое описание:

Меркушова Н. И., Меркушова Ю. А. Analysis of Approaches to Implementing the Principle of TQM «Continuous Improvement» in Production Management // Молодой ученый. — 2013. — №11. — С. 404-407.

The paper analyzes the approaches to the study and development cycle PDCA, which is the basis of the principle of TQM «continuous improvement».  The techniques «8D», QS-story as examples of approaches to continuous improvement of production processes Russian enterprises.

Key words:the cycle of PDCA, the method «8D».

Modern management is based on the principle of «Continuous improvement» for the following reasons: a higher level of competition, continuous improvement of customer requirements, the processes of globalization, etc. To implement this principle, developed different concepts and approaches to the most famous is the principle of PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act), also known as the Shewhart-Deming cycle, as well as its derivatives cycle PDSA (Plan-Do-Study-Act), double-loop SDCA-PDCA (Standard-Do-Check-Act - Plan-Do-Check-Act), proposed by Masaaki Imai.

Kaoru Ishikawa offered the following 6 steps based on the PDCA cycle to solve the problems of the organization:

-          definition of goals and objectives;

-          identify ways to achieve the objectives;

-          education and training;

-          works;

-          validation of the results of the work;

-          implementation of appropriate control actions [1].

Well-known American expert J. Juran in the middle of the XX century, formulated the concept of an annual production of quality improvement and proposed a general sequence of solutions of various problems based on the following steps:

-          analysis of the symptoms of the problem;

-          a theory to explain the cause of the problem;

-          testing of the developed theory;

-          identification of the causes of the problem;

-          development and modeling ways to eliminate the identified causes;

-          verification of the proposed measures [2].

Russian scientist V. Shper, highlighting the importance of systematic and statistical thinking in the implementation cycle PDCA offers separate phase Act ( impact) on the following components : AS – the impact on the system ( area of ​​responsibility of senior management ) , and AL - impact on the special causes of variability (zone of shared responsibility of middle management and performers ) [3].

The above mentioned approaches are reflected in the development and application of specific techniques in enterprises, one of the most common is the method of «8D» (Eight Discipline) – one of the main methods in the world of work with claims and systematically address the complex problems of quality. «8D» reflects the modern consumer expectations with regard to provide feedback to the marriage. This method was developed by «Ford Motor Company» in 1987 on the basis of the military standard 1520 ( corrective action and disposition system for nonconforming materials used by the U.S. government during World War II. Development of a method «8D» is largely due to the fact that for automakers to suppliers – a serious risk factor to be managed , including through the use of this method. Similar approaches have been developed and other global automakers : General Motors – PR&S (Problem Response and Solutions); Daimler Chrysler – 7 Steps; Honda – 5P and etc.

The most frequently used method for active interaction with suppliers. At the same time the use of techniques is not recommended no description of the problem, do not understand its meaning, or vice versa, there is no doubt that the true cause of the problem, the problem can be solved by one expert.

The main stages of the method are as follows:

Step D0. Initiating a «8D», notice the supplier.

Step D1. Building a team to solve a problem that has the knowledge , time, authority and skills to solve problems and implement preventive and corrective action .

Step D2. Description of the problem by analyzing the 5W2H - Who, What, When, Where, Why, How, How many.

Step D3. Development of interim actions to eliminate the consequences (for example , elevated levels of control) and the replacement product at the customer, and to assess their effectiveness.

Step D4. Analysis of the causes of the problem through the use of various tools , which include the seven quality control tools (primarily Ishikawa diagrams and Pareto ) , seven tools of quality management, FMEA, FTA , etc. At the same time pay attention to the two types of main reasons : the main cause of the event (the system that has led to the emergence of the event) , and the main reason for omission (the system that allowed to miss the event of the form , without early detection) . The main rule of stages: only the «Why» and never «Who ≤».

Step D5. Determination of long-term corrective action (for both products and quality management system) and their verification .

Step D6. The introduction of long-term corrective actions and their validation.

Step D7. The selection and implementation of preventive actions.

Step D8. Summing up, encouraging team members to determine the effectiveness of the method «8D», a decision on the possibility of using the results to other production sites and processes.

The method involves documenting each stage, which is developed specially shaped form. Advantages of this approach are the following:

-          organization aims at finding reasons inconsistencies that increase the efficiency and effectiveness of actions taken;

-          can improve monitoring systems in production;

-          fosters a corporate culture of collaborative problem solving.

Limitations associated with the following method:

-          the need for the management and staff of the statistical and systematic thinking ;

-          presence practice problem-solving based on the «blame game», the desire to shift the problem to neighboring departments .

This method is widely used by Russian enterprises. Thus, OJSC «KAMAZ» from 2008 the mandatory requirements to suppliers of automotive components is the use of problem-solving process on the quality of supply on the basis of «8D» [4].

Implementing on a specific production method can have its modification. For example, of «AvtoVAZ agregat» technique for solving problems on the basis of «8D» includes the following steps [5]:

-          a detailed description of non-compliance;

-          analysis of similar products;

-          analysis the causes of the defect prior to delivery;

-          disincentives, "consumer protection";

-          analysis of the causes of non-compliance;

-          final plan of action;

-          analysis of the impact of the final action;

-          accounting and consolidation experience in the documentation.

The distinctive features of this method are used as the zero phase of the team as well as the separation of phases find the cause of the event and the reasons for improvement.

An essential feature of the method «8D» is the establishment of strict deadlines for implementation of steps (from a few days to 1 month), as shown in Table 1 based on the analysis of the documentation Russian enterprises [4-7].

Table 1

Terms of implementing the steps of the method «8D» on Russian companies

Name of enterprise

Stages of implementation of the method

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

D7

D8

OJSC «AvtoVAZagregat»

48 hours

10 calendar days

1 month

OJSC «Tver Carriage Works»

48 hours

7 calendar days

14 calendar days

OJSC «KAMAZ»

24 hours

5 calendar days

10 calendar days

OJSC «Robert Bosch Saratov»

1 day

2 days

7 days

Similar methods to improve operations, based on the cycle PDCA, are also in other well-known and widely distributed production systems. So, at the OJSC «AvtoVAZ» as a priority tool management and quality control processes implemented within the framework of the deployment of APW (Alliance Production Way – worldwide standardized production system that uses best practices of the method of manufacture Nissan, as well as the production system Renault, the name was approved by the in 2009) , uses several techniques for solving problems of varying complexity. For example, QC-story, based on the Shewhart - Deming cycle and includes the following steps:

-          choice of theme ;

-          justification relevance choose the theme;

-          study of the current situation;

-          target selection ;

-          closing stages of the definition of the problem;

-          analysis and logical presentation of the causal relationships in the study of the situation ;

-          develop a plan of action;

-          implementation of the action plan and visualize the effect ;

-          standardization of experience to use in such situations [8].

Another effective tools for solving the problems of APW is the audit FOP-A-FOP, performed on the basis of the following algorithm [8]:

-          service quality selectively takes one car , inspects it and notes deviations, if any ;

-          on the identified discrepancies are being observed by fasting workers , determined the causes of the defect. All deviations are recorded on your post in a special table , consisting of 24 evaluation criteria of the post ;

-          planned and implemented «kaizen», the event, the results are fed every day;

-          all of the work undertaken on the quality, training, monitoring work schedule fasting, reports on activities hosted by the brigade stands.

Analogue PDCA cycle are at the basis of QRQC (Quick Response Quality Control) – a rapid response to product quality problems), which is also part of the APW method consists of the following stages, the implementation of which is typically documented using a standard form:

-          Definition: Department of defective products from high-quality , labeling and placing them in a certain area. Having discovered the defect , the operator identifies the item red label and place in a specially defined box / tray ;

-          Communication: once the defective unit is placed in a specially designated place , the operator notifies you when a portion of the defect responsible , with the first appearance of the defect should stop site for organizing a meeting to address the problem ;

-          Analysis of a collective meeting of all members or representatives of the main plot. Meeting will be held at the workplace, where there was or was seen defect. Start a meeting always takes place with consideration of the defective part and comparison with quality . The main tool for solving problems in QRQC, along with the methods «5W2H», Pareto charts and Ishikawa, tree stands error analysis, which usually is not built every time a new and stored for each site / workplace , being a supplement when a new problem. Thus, the error tree analysis is used not only as a tool to find the cause , but also for the fixing of all possible solutions. At the first level QRQC, analysis and problem solving is conducted without the involvement of operators of the line engineering staff . It should be noted that this is possible only under -trained and highly qualified personnel . When the problem can not be solved in a team site , the problem is transferred to the next level;

-          Verification - when compared with the quality of defective parts , analyzing and solving the problem, check the solution found. One way of verification found reasons - reproduction defect [9].

Thus, in general, methods for continuous improvement used in the production management, characterized by:

-          on the basis of cycle PDCA;

-          teamwork;

-          wide palette of methods;

-          developed standardized forms;

-          short term situation analysis and problem solving;

-          verification of the effectiveness of corrective and preventive actions;

-          visualization of the result achieved for the participants, leadership, and partners.

References:

1.                           P. Adler. Methods of continuous improvement through the prism of the Shewhart-Deming cycle / P. Adler, EI Hunuzidi, VL Shper // Methods of Quality Management. 2005. - № 3. [Email. resource]. Mode of access: URL: http://www.management.com.ua/qm/qm067.html (date accessed: 06.10.2013).

2.                           Frayesleben B. The quality problems and their real value / Johannes Frayesleben [email. resource]. Mode of access: URL: http://www.management.com.ua/qm/qm095.html (date accessed: 06.10.2013).

3.                           Shper V. Reflections on Deming , management and statistical thinking / V. Shper [ email . resource] . Mode of access: URL: http://quality.eup.ru/MATERIALY14/dmsm.htm (date accessed : 06.10.2013) .

4.                           Report 8D ( the official website of «KAMAZ») [email . resource] . Mode of access: URL: http://kamaz.ru/ru/investor/supplier/quality/8d/ (date accessed : 06.10.2013) .

5.                           I 63000.37.101.1161-2013 «Using the 8D methodology for corrective action on discrepancies supplies and demands of consumers» [email . resource] . Mode of access : URL: (date accessed : 06.10.2013) .

6.                           Yuri Medvedev. Dealing with the quality of products of JSC «Robert Bosch Saratov» / Y.A. Medvedev, A.I. Baht Mode of access: URL: http://www.metodika.org (date accessed : 06.10.2013).

7.                           I 282-2011 Conduct of work to solve the problems by 8D [email . resource] . Mode of access : URL: http://benchmarking.tvz.ru/index.php/8d-insructions(date accessed : 06.10.2013).

8.                           Schubert N. QC-story solve the problem quickly and efficiently [ email . resource] . Mode of access : URL: http://www.up-pro.ru/library/quality_management/QMS_procedure/metodika-qcstory.html (date accessed : 06.10.2013) .

9.                           Pogodina G. Methods of finding a solution to problems of access mode : URL: http://www.kadrovik.ru/modules.php≤op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=9395 (date accessed : 06.10.2013) .

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