Библиографическое описание:

Мирзаи С. Х. A Consideration of the Relationship between Self-esteem and General Health in High School Boys Students // Молодой ученый. — 2012. — №12. — С. 425-429.

The aim of this study was conducted to determine the relationship between self-esteem and general health of the Iranian high schoolboy’s students. The correlation of 293 students selected at multi-stage random sample of high school students was computed. The data included demographic information, the questionnaire Esteem, and Goldberg‘s General Health Questionnaire. Using descriptive statistics, and Pearson correlation and analysis of variance, data analysis was performed in Spss software.

The mean and standard deviation of self-esteem score was 35/9±7/7. A significant correlation was found between self-esteem and general health. Also, there was an inverse significant relation between self-esteem and some domains (anxiety, sleep disorders, depression, physical dimension, social dysfunction).

General health and self-esteem were correlated. The area of anxiety and asleep disorders had the highest mean and it seems using educational strategies are essential in order to reduce anxiety.

Key words: self-esteem, general health, students.


Introduction

Adolescence is an exciting and challenging period. During this period, all teenagers facing the most stressful factors and the need for adaptation; consequently, they must have mental health and greater self-reliance. So, they can be successful in their school and ultimately in their careers. Personal characteristics, educational and social requirements in some social-economic factor scan be considered the confounding variables in educational status [1 and 3]. Having self-esteem, is one of the normal personality traits. Self-esteem is the degree of approval and a value the person feels about himself or herself or the judgment that has in relation to his/her personality [23]. Self-esteem is the concept that has been studied by many psychologists. Many concepts such as, depression, loneliness, anxiety and self-esteem are considered as negative concepts and other factors such as, being efficient, the feeling of empowerment and academic achievement are reported as positive concepts [4and 17, pp. 13-65].

Every person needs self-esteem regardless of age, gender, cultural background, and the type of work that need in life. This factor virtually could affect every aspect of our life and those who usually feel good about themselves, has the same feeling about their lives. They can confidently face the challenges and the outcome of their responsibilities in life [13]. Undoubtedly one of the most important reasons for the self-concept research is its potential impact on health. Studies that devoted to the study of self-esteem have revealed that self- Esteem damaged cannot tolerate the conditions or difficulties that people encounter in everyday life. The outcomes of these situations will have detrimental impact on their mental and physical health.This evidence suggests that distorting reality is caused by the outcome of individual consequences range including the factors such as, anxiety and depression cases, mental and physical dysfunctions, problems of Good communication and exaggerated behavioral responses such as substance abuse, and sabotage. Undoubtedly, some of these outcomes increasingly increase a person's vulnerability; in this case the interpersonal and social system consequences of a normal life get collapse [10 pp. 57-68]. According to the importance of self-esteem [11, p.7], according to Charf’s, Ericsson believes that having self respect is necessary for the successful adolescent’s period. This period is the formation of professional relationships, social cooperation and friendly relations with other persons. Other researchers have shown the relation between self-esteem and demographic variables such as self-efficacy [23] commitment [20] life satisfaction [14], mental health [5]. In general, self-esteem has an effective role in mental health, and in many researches the emphasis is on the role of self-esteem in emotional adjustment, emotional, social and psychological stress [16, p.40-90].

Academic failure is caused by Anxiety, depression and physical problems and in general poor health [2]. General studies have shown that the most effective factor about having positive feeling is the reason of behavioral healthy growth, academic achievement and also, prevent disorder and confusion. In recent decades the widespread of self-esteem’s importance and its impact on healthy growth,has been the center of psychologist’s focus and considered as one way of enhancing self-esteem [21, pp.183-188]. The relationship between general health and self-esteem has been investigated in several studies, but the amount varies greatly between them.

This study was done primarily on students, but in Iran these studies were limit. This study was held to determine the relationship between general health and self-esteem of high school boy’s students.

Methods:

This study is a correlation study, and the populations were high school boy’s students. The coefficient was estimated around 0/5, and the 95% confidence level according to the multistage sampling, was estimated 293. According to multistage random sampling method and by students’ name list, the samples were selected and questionnaires were distributed. The data collected in this study included demographic information, self-concept questionnaire (cooper-smith) which was contained 25 specific questions with yes and no answers by a score of zero and one [8].

Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg health question Naire) that consists of 28 multiple-choice questions in four domains: depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms and social dysfunction and with scale of repetition action, a much lower than usual, less than usual, as always, provided more than usual and it was assigned scores of zero to three. The total score for each domain and the total score of 21 and a total area of ​​ 84, the highest score indicating the lower general health [11, p.191] the validity of the final English version of both questionnaires was confirmed in several studies. The final coefficient of self-esteem was 0/79 and the last coefficient of GHQ was 0/96 and the subscales of depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms and social dysfunction were 0/94, 0/90 and 0/89 and 0/78 respectively.Spss-15 was used in data analysis and using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient. T-test and ANOVA were performed in order to compare two or more groups.

Results

Statistical analysis was performed on 293 questionnaires and shows that the majority of students, n, 239 (82/1%) were first year high school. The Majority of students, 150 (51/ 5%) their father's education were diploma and 259 students’ father had free jobs (89%). The majority of the students, 137 (47/1%), their family income was average. The majority of 231 (79/4%) students were live in city.

The mean and standard deviation of students’ self-esteem were 35/9 7/7.

Variant mean and standard deviation

Physical signs 12/07±4/1

Anxiety and asleep disturbance 12/8±4/5

Depression 10/02±4/7

Social efficiency 10/1±1/6

Table 1; The mean and standard deviation of four areas of the students’ general health

As you look at table #1, the number of physical signs, anxiety and sleep disturbance approximately were the same, and the numbers of depression and the social efficiency disturbance were the same too.The numbers of anxiety and asleep disturbance were more than other areas.Depression had the least number as compared to other areas of general health.

Variants Number Correlation coefficient Level of significance

Self-esteem Physical signs 293 -0/125 0/035

Table 2; Correlation coefficient of the mean of the students ‘self-esteem and physical signs

As you see in table #2, correlation coefficient between the average of students’ self-esteem and physical signs is examined. Correlation coefficient among these two variant is (-0/125). According to statistic this outcome is significant.

Variant:

Number Correlation coefficient Level of significance

Self-esteem Anxiety and asleep disturbance 293 -0/204 0/001

Table #3; Correlation coefficient of the mean of the students’ self-esteem, anxiety and sleep disturbance:

As you see in table #3, correlation coefficient between the mean of the students’ self-esteem, anxiety and asleep disturbance is examined. Correlation coefficient between these two variant is (-2/204), which is significant according to statistics.

Variant Number Correlation coefficient Level of significance

Self-esteem depression 293 -0/205 Less than 0/01

Table #4; Correlation coefficient of the mean of the students’ self-esteem and depression:

As you see in table #4, the correlation coefficient is investigated among the mean of the students’ self-esteem and depression. The correlation coefficient between these variant is (-0/205).According to statistic, this outcome is significant.

Table #5; Correlation coefficient of the mean of the students’ self-esteem and social efficiency disturbance:

Variant Number Correlation coefficient Level of significance

Self-esteem Social efficiency disturbance 293 -0/228 Less than 0/01

As you see in the table #5, the correlation coefficient is examined of the mean of the students’ self-esteem and social efficiency disturbance. The correlation coefficient between these two variant is (-0/228). According to statistic, this outcome is significant.

Discussion

This investigation is accomplished to examine the effect of self-esteem on the general health of the high schoolboys.

Hypothesis 1:

This research presents that there is difference between the students’ self-esteem and physical signs. Data of this Hypothesis was analyzed based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient of the data in the table #2 is (-0/125), that is significant according to statistics. Therefore, it is concluded that there is a significant contrast and reversed relation between self-esteem and physical signs of the students, which means, by increasing one of the variants the other variants would decrease, that is by increasing physical signs, the student’s self-esteem would decrease.

Hypothesis 2:

This research express that there is difference between self-esteem and the students’ anxiety and asleep disturbance. Data of this assumption is analyzed according to Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient of the table #3 is (-0/204) which is significant according to statistic. Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant difference and reversed relation between the anxiety and sleep disturbance of the students. Therefore, by increasing the self-esteem, the signs of anxiety and sleep disturbance of the students will be decrease and vice-versa.

Hypothesis 3:

This research explains that there is difference among the self-esteem and the students’ depression.

Data of this assumption is analyzed based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient. That is, there is significant contrary and reversed relation between self-esteem and the students’ depression. It means by increasing self-esteem, the depression of the students will decrease and vice-versa.

Hypothesis 4:

According to this investigation there is a difference between self-esteem and social efficiency disturbance of the students. Data of this assumption was analyzed based on the Pearson’s correlation coefficient.

The correlation coefficient of table #5 is (-0/0228) which is significant according to statistic. So, it is concluded that there is a significant difference and reversed relation between self-esteem and social efficiency disturbance. That is, by increasing the self-esteem the social efficiency disturbance will decrease and vice-versa.

Main Hypothesis:

This research express that there is difference between self-esteem and the students’ general health. Since, there is a significant relation between these four areas of general health (depression, anxiety, asleep disturbance, social efficiency disturbance and physical signs), it is concluded that there is a significant contrary between self-stem and general health. As a result, the students with high self-esteem have high general health (and vice-versa).At the end, it is perceived that there is significant correlation coefficient between self-esteem and general health, which confirms the other studies.

Based on Zare’s study on the students of the Medical Science university of Shiraz, negative average (-0/59) significant correlation coefficient was obtained between self-esteem and general health[25].Also, Rezaee’s study that accomplished on the working women in Zimense factory of Shiraz and household women, indicates that the significant relation between self-esteem and mental health in women was less than 20/05.Also, Lavasani’s study that accomplished on the teachers of the Tehran university preschool, indicates that there is significant difference between self-esteem and mental health of the teachers [12].certainly, the research limitation can be involved in analyzing the results. Not responding of some of the students to some of the questions and the deduction of the samples was one of the research limitation. Also; lack of motivation for answering to the research questionnaire was another problem of the research. Doing the research with large number of samples and applying the involved variants and controlling the extra variants are the best choice to achieve superior results.

Comparative researches in other universities can remove the ambiguity of the subject.

It seems that the educational strategies will be used to decrease the depression, according to the numbers of the scale of depression and asleep disturbance in the scale of general health. The use of methods to increase the self-esteem would be a shortcut to increase general health in those students that have less general health.

Conclusion

The result of the research indicates the correlation between self-esteem and general health and its scales. In other word, those who have higher self-esteem, have higher general health too. Also, there is a reversed significant relation between self-esteem and depression, anxiety, asleep disturbance, physical signs and social efficiencies disturbance. Therefore, attention to the health condition of the students is suggested to reinforce their self-esteem.


References:

  1. Amini Marziyeh, YosufiFarideh. Consideration of Stress Sources and the Way of Reaction to them in the Students of State Universities of Shiraz and Azad University of Marvdasht.Social and Human Science Journal of Shiraz University.2001. No. 32.Pp.149-172.

  2. Abbassabadi Batul. Relation between Anxiety and Education Improvement.M.A. Dissertation. Education and Psychology University of Mashhad Ferdusi. 1997.

  3. Bahrami Hadi. Consideration of Social and Psyche Problems of Iran’s University Student. Third Seminar of University Student’s Mind Health. University of Iran’s Science and Industry. Tehran. 2006. Pp. 54-80.

  4. BeerJ.Depression and self steem of teachers.Psychol Rep 1987 jun, 60 (3pt2): 1097-8

  5. Biatny, M &klimus ova, H.(2004). The personality correlates of self esteem and life satisfaction.institute of psychology.

  6. Biyabangard Ismael. Methods of Increasing the Infant and Adolescence Self-esteem.Association, Parents and Educator Press. 2001.

  7. BahmaniBahman. Asgari Ali. National Normalization and Assessment of Characteristics of of General Health Questionnaire for Iran’s Medical University Science’s Students.The third Seminar on University Student’s Mind Health. 2006. Tehran: Iran University of Science and Industry. P. 70-62.

  8. Cooper-Smith s SEl, self- esteem inventory. Palo AHo: consulting psychologists press. 1986.

  9. Filozof EM, Albeytin HK, jones CR, stemessmyers L, MC DERmott RJ. Realation ship of adolescent self- esteem to selected academic variables. J sch health 1998 feb; 68 (2),pp, 68.72.

  10. Grossman R.&wirt R. (2004). Stress, self- esteem, and mental health: how does gender make a difference.Journal of clinical psychology, vol. 68 8 pp. 57-68.

  11. Goldberg DP, Gater r, Sartorius n,ustun b, piccinelli M, Gureje o, etal. The validity of two version of the GHQ in the who study of mental illness in general health care. Psychol Med 1997 jan; 27(1),pp,191-7.

  12. GholamliLavasaniMassud. Relation between Job-Satisfaction, Self-esteem and Mental Health.A Case Study of Educator of Pre-school Centre of Tehran University.Psychology and Education Sciences of Tehran University.2000. No. 60.

  13. Islaminasab, Ali. Confidence.Zoqi press. 1995.

  14. Lyubomirsky, s, Chris, T. Robin M. (2006).what are the differences between happiness and self esteem. Social indicators Research.Vol 78

  15. Mathews DB, barbaral. Anxiety:a component of self. Esteem. Elementary school guidance and counseling 1989,24 (2),pp,153-9

  16. Mihandust Zeinab. Relation between Self-concept, Source of Control and Self-esteem and Mind Health in the Students of Azad University of Ilam Branch.Third Seminar on University Student’s Mind Health. Tehran: University of Iran’s Science and Industry. 2006. P. 40-90.

  17. Mullis AK, Mullis RL.vocational interests of adolescents: relationships between self – esteem and locus of contrd. Psychol Rep 1997 Dec, 81 (3 pt 2),pp, 13-63- 71.

  18. Philpot vd, Holliman wb,Madonnas.self statements, locus of control and depression in predicting self- steem. Psychol Rep 1995 jun,; 76 (3pt1) pp, 100-7-10.

  19. Rezaee Lila. Effect of Self-esteem on Mind Health of Employed Women in Zimens Factory of Shiraz and University Unemployed Women.Quarterly of Innovation of Industrial Organational Psychology.First year.No. 3. 2010,pp,19-29.

  20. Salmela, A &Nurmijari, E. (2007). Self esteem during university studies predicts career characteristics 10 years- journal of voccution al behavior.vd. 10

  21. Silver stone, H.p.(1991). low self- esteem in different psychiactive conditions. British journal of clinical psychology.Vol 30, pp 183- 188

  22. Smith,G (2007). Parenting effects on self- efficacy and self.esteem in late adolescence and how those factors impact adjustment to college philadelfia: estern psychological Association. Ph.

  23. Smith EE,nolen-hoeksemas, fredrickson b, loftus g. Atkinson and Hilgard s, introduction to psychologg. 14 thed. New york: wadsworth publ2002.

  24. Tashakkori a, Thomp son vd. Gender, self- perception and self evaluation in depression:a factor analysis study among Iranian college student s.personality and individual differencec 1998, 10 (3),pp.34-54.

  25. Zare Najaf. DaneshpajohFarokh. Eyen Marzeyah, Razagi Mohsen and Falahzadeh Mohammad Hossien Relation between General Health and Self-esteem in the Students of Medical University of Shiraz. Iranian Magazine of Education in Medical Sciences/Spring and Summer. 2007. 7(1), pp, 59-68.

Обсуждение

Социальные комментарии Cackle