Библиографическое описание:

Кобзева Н. А. Approaches to Teaching Writing within University Environment // Молодой ученый. — 2011. — №3. Т.2. — С. 121-123.

The article presents an analysis of some Approaches to Teaching foreign languages writing practice at EFL classes, provides some practical exercises.
Key words: spoken and written language, creative communication skills, writing learning goal.

"The ability to read the written language at a reasonable

rate with good comprehension has long been recognized to be

as important as oral skills, if not more important." (Eskey, 1970)

Nowadays the role of writing in foreign language teaching is gradually increased. In some sense, it is considered as an effective means of mastering a foreign language.
Undoubtedly one can not ignore the practical importance of written communication such as e-mail, different forums, the Internet, etc. In the latter case, writing as a form of verbal communication develops on the basis of authentic material.
Foreign training graduate students and young scientists suggest the ability to make recordings in a foreign language, form, fill out and answer questionnaires, write an application for admission to study or work, write brief or detailed curriculum vitae, writing personal or business letters, using the correct form speech etiquette, including the form of business etiquette.
These circumstances determine the relevance and purpose of this article.
Writing and written language in the way of language learning is not only a learning tool, but sometimes a goal of foreign language teaching. According to the syllabus, technical university students study main principles of writing a letter, essays, annotations and reports.
Written speech with a so-called productive kind of verbal activity is expressed in the fixation of certain content graphic signs.
Psychophysical basis of written language is the interaction of motor, visual and auditory analyzers. Reliance on all analyzers in the training gives a significantly greater effect
According to psychologists, heard material is absorbed by 10%, seen by 20%, heard and seen by 30%, recorded by 50%. Psychologists believe that the basis of written language is spoken language. Both speaking and writing can be seen from a plan (what to say) to the selection of necessary instruments (which are necessary words combined in an utterance) and to the plan’s implementation by means of language either orally or in writing.
As it is known, writing is closely related to reading. Graphics language system is the core element of their systems. That is if writing is coding or encrypting thoughts through graphics, reading is their decoding or deciphering.
While teaching university students rules and standards of writing, we should use a proper system of exercises which will promote development of other skills and abilities. Thus appropriate work with written speech favours the development of oral speech which gradually becomes richer and more logical.
Writing is a supporting instrument in grammatical skills forming. Without relying on writing students have difficulty in keeping the lexical and grammatical material in mind.
The whole system of spoken language exercises to be performed in writing, refers to learning of writing. Written presentation, essays, creative dictations, drafting plans and talking points for speech on a given topic, writing personal or business letters refer to communicative writing. In other words, exercises for written speech contribute to conversation practice.
Written speech should be regarded as creative communication skills, understood as the ability to express thoughts in writing. In order to express thoughts in writing form students need to own spelling and calligraphic skills, ability to build and place composition in writing, ability to select appropriate lexical and grammatical units.
Teaching writing involves different kinds of exercises:
  • exercises for teaching written message;
  • written exercises with printed texts;
  • written exercises, resulting from the process of reading, listening;
Writing exercises with printed text could be as follows:
  • rewrite the text, delete from it the secondary words and sentences;
  • make a written message to the potential, real or imaginary addressee, using the contents of the letter;

  • prepare a plan of oral presentations, using a compilation of texts on a topic or problem.
While reading, students can use the following written exercises such as:
  • find the text on the topic and record the necessary information;
  • make a written overview of the topic or problem, using a variety of sources in a foreign language;
  • make annotations on a special magazine articles (collection of articles);
  • by analogy with the article prepare material for the presentation keeping the formal style;
  • in the process of reading texts make written notes for further use the material.
In the perception of written language, students make up a list of issues for discussion with a real or imaginary person, abstracts, pick up a written lecture on the cards, and make pattern tables for oral presentations on a topic (issue) or the situation.
The practice of writing can make a transcription of printed text or audio texts from memory, according to the plan or to make written proposals to address the specific issue or specific problem. The class series on the topic ends with lessons on writing a home composition or essay.
Student’s abilities to present their thoughts in writing using a foreign language should be developed consistently and constantly.
For creative written work business informational texts can be used. Students are asked questions of a personal nature, such as:
  • How important / new is the provided information for you?;
  • What makes your world differ from the world of my peers abroad?
  • Why do there these differences occur?
In contemporary methodology of teaching foreign language writing the so-called "creative writing" method is widely spread. "Creative writing" refers to the nature of the most productive exercises varying degrees of difficulty, varied in form and content. Using "creative writing» EFL teachers set themselves specific questions: when to write, how much and for what purpose? Will a letter may be useful and to whom? etc.
In teaching English practice within TPU undergraduate students were given interesting and unusual tasks to write a letter to a former English teacher at their school, where he or she was a pupil and a letter to former classmates. The analysis of the results shows it was not only effective form of writing but also a truly absorbing and creative activity.
We should not forget the three most important conditions for the introduction of creative writing in the classroom: learning objectives, principles, methods and techniques of teaching and testing.
Writing a letter is a very successful form of exercise with a multifunctional character. For teaching letter writing, one should begin with a series of speech exercises. Firstly, exercises to memorize the written formulas, clichйs used in letter forms of writing to the addressee, ways of expressing gratitude, acknowledgment of receipt of the letter, the hopes for a speedy response, etc. could be done.
This is followed by reading letters, letters schemes identification, supporting ideas, key words. Students will make analysis of texts, letters, give their characteristics of authors’ styles, determine the nature of letters (personal, family, business, problem, a letter of thanks, congratulations, invitation, etc.), analyze the means of presentation of thoughts in different styles and letters character, means to move from one thought to another, etc.
Secondly, students could be offered to make a collective letter, then the thematic message of a given situation, letters on different style (personal, family, and business), the letter-response to the request or the addressee letter-active character or a letter of response on a given issue, based on specific addressee.
Sometimes writing letters to different recipients with different target settings, but with the same content or modifying the same text message is also appropriate. It should work on drafting questions for the recipient, to determine their place in the letter.
Finally, it is assumed to write collective or individual letters, connecting with international clubs by means of e-mail. This idea turned out to be very successful among TPU students. With great pleasure they began to correspond with their peers in Japan, students of TPU partner Kure National College of Technology make use of English as a foreign language.
Thus, the process of mastering written language includes learning to write personal and business letters, filling out forms, writing brief and detailed curriculum vitae, statements of admission to school or work, etc. So the main goal of writing learning is perform the same supportive role in teaching reading, speaking, grammar, vocabulary.


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