Автор: Юшкевич Ольга Валерьевна

Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №26 (130) декабрь 2016 г.

Библиографическое описание:

Юшкевич О. В. Some practical issues of teaching intensive reading in ESP language course // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №26.

Препринт статьи



Some issues of teaching English for specific purposes are touched upon in the paper. In particular, some practical aspects of teaching intensive reading are being regarded. As an example, the techniques aimed at the development of skills mastering among the technical profile learners are being described.

Key words: teaching English for specific purposes, intensive reading, teaching practice, teaching methods and techniques

ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course concentrates more on language in context than on teaching grammar and language structures. The ESP main point is that English is integrated into a vocational subject area important to the students. Reading always was and is now one of the most relevant language skill in great demand among ESP learners. It varies greatly in purpose of reading, forms of text material presented and definitely the techniques needed to achieve the stated aims. Teaching reading is a complicated task as it requires the flexibility in using methods of teaching to meet the learners’ needs and at the same time goals of teaching-learning process.

Considering various types of reading it should be noted that intensive reading is aimed at the complete understanding of the text meaning with its deep analysis. Such kind of reading practice implies the completeness and the accuracy of understanding. Sometimes intensive reading is called reading for detail or reading for detailed comprehension. Brown explains that intensive reading «calls attention to grammatical forms, discourse markers, and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning, implications, rhetorical relationships, and the like». [1]. Long and Richards say it is a «detailed in-class» analysis, led by the teacher, of vocabulary and grammar points, in a short passage [2]».

The acquisition of the whole range of skills is performed during the following stages: pre-reading, during-reading and post-reading. Pre-reading stage activities are focused on modeling background information that is necessary and sufficient for the reception of a particular text. During-reading activities may consist of summarizing, reacting, questioning, arguing, evaluating, and placing a text within one's own experience. These processes may be the most complex to develop in a classroom setting, the reason being that in English reading classes most attention is often paid to dictionaries, the text, and the teacher. Interrupting this routine and encouraging students to dialogue with what they are reading without coming between them and the text presents a challenge to the ESP teacher. Duke and Pearson have stated that good readers are active readers [3]. During post-reading stage it is necessary to state that post-reading activities almost always depend on the purpose of reading and the type of information extracted from the text. Barnett has stated that post-reading exercises first check students' comprehension and then lead students to a deeper analysis of the text [4]. The following example of post-reading stage techniques can be provided as an illustration of such kind of practice.

Text: «Dynamics. Laws of motion»

Dynamics is the study of the ways in which objects behave when they are acted on by forces. Such forces are all around us — for example, the gravitational force acting on a falling object, the air resistance that offsets the full effect of gravity on it, and the frictional force that makes it difficult to drag an object along the ground.

Just as there are many different types of forces, there are also different types of motion produced by those forces. In linear motion, an object moves in a straight line and a falling body is an example. Circular motion is produced when an object is acted on by a force that originates from a central point. If an object is held in equilibrium by two forces, and the extra force resulting from slightly moving the object from its equilibrium position is directly proportional to the distance moved, then the object oscillates regularly in simple harmonic motion.

For an understanding of dynamics, it is necessary to have a knowledge of kinematics, which is the study of motion alone, without taking into account what causes the motion. The most basic concept in kinematics is that of the displacement of a particle; this is the length and direction of the line along which the particle moves from some fixed point, the origin. A quantity, in which both magnitude and direction are specified, is called a vector. And vectors are of great importance in physics.

The next concept is that of the velocity of the particle. It is defined as the rate of change of the displacement with time. Velocity is itself a vector. The commonly-used word speed is reserved by physicists to denote only the magnitude of an object’s velocity, but not its direction. Any quantity that measures only the magnitude of some phenomenon and not its direction as well is known as a scalar quantity. Multiplying the velocity of an object by its mass gives us another vector quantity — momentum.

When the velocity of an object changes, it either accelerates or decelerates. The rate of change of velocity with time is measured in meters per second per second (ms-2) or an equivalent unit such as kilometers per hour per hour (km hr-2). Acceleration itself can vary with time.

The fundamental problem of dynamics is determining the motion of an object acted on by forces. The three basic laws governing this behavior are called Newton’s laws of motion, after the English mathematician and physicist Isaac Newton (1642–1727), who formulated them in the seventeenth century, along with the law of universal gravitation.

Newton’s first law of motion states that an object will remain at rest or will continue to move uniformly in a straight line at constant velocity unless acted on by a force.

Newton’s second law goes a stage further to describe how an object behaves when a force does act on it. This law states that the rate of change of momentum of an object is proportional to the force acting on it.

Newton’s third law of motion concerns the interaction of forces produced by objects. It states that if one object exerts a force on another, that second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first. This is the principle of action and reaction. A common example of this principle in operation occurs when someone tries to step onto land from a boat. In getting out of the boat, the person exerts a force on it. So as he goes forward onto land, the boat is pushed in the other direction.

1. Find the sentences that can’t be found in the text.

1) Just as there are many different types of forces, there are alsodifferent types of motion produced by those forces.

2) The most basic concept in kinematics is that of the displacement of a particle.

3) The three basic laws governing this behavior are called New-ton’s laws of motion.

4) Using Newton’s laws it is possible to find the position of a body by a knowledge of the relation between that position and its velocity or rate of change of velocity at any other time.

5) The calculus, developed by Newton, could be used and was used by him for solving a great variety of mechanical and hydrodynamic problems.

6) The object of Newton was to demonstrate how universal gravity could maintain the system of the world.

7) Newton established, once and for all, the dynamic view of the universe instead of the static one and showed that the universe was regulated by simple mathematical laws.

2. Put the following sentences in the right order.

1) When the velocity of an object changes, it either accelerates ordecelerates.

2) For an understanding of dynamics, it is necessary to have a knowledge of kinematics, which is the study of motion alone.

3) Dynamics is the study of the ways in which objects behave when they are acted on by forces.

4) The fundamental problem of dynamics is determining the motion of an object acted on by forces.

5) Just as there are many different types of forces, there are also different types of motion produced by those forces: linear motion, circular motion, simple harmonic motion.

6) The next concept is that of the velocity of the particle.

7) The most basic concept in kinematics is that of the displacement of a particle.

3. Analyze the structure of the sentences.

1) If an object is held in equilibrium by two forces, and the extraforce resulting from slightly moving the object from its equilibrium position is directly proportional to the distance moved, then the object oscillates regularly in simple harmonic motion.

2) Multiplying the velocity of an object by its mass gives us another vector quantity — momentum.

3) Newton’s second law goes a stage further to describe how an object behaves when a force does act on it.

4. Fill in the missing words.

________ is the study of the ways in which objects behave whenthey are acted on by forces.

Such forces are all around us — for example, the ________ force acting on a falling object, the _________ ____ that offsets the full effect of gravity on it, and the ________ force.

In _______ _______ an object moves in a straight line.

For an understanding of dynamics, it is necessary to have a knowledge of _____ which is the study of motion alone.

The most basic concept in kinematics is that of the ________ of a particle.

Such a quantity in which both ______ and ________ are specified, is called a vector.

________ the velocity of an object by its mass gives us another vector quantity — ________.

When the velocity of an object changes, it either _______ or _______.

The fundamental problem of dynamics is ________ the motion of an object acted on by forces. The three basic laws ________ this behavior are called laws of motion.

Newton’s first law of motion _____ that an object will remain at rest or will continue to move ________ in a straight line at a constant velocity.

Newton’s second law states that the rate change momentum an object is proportional ______ the force acting ______ it.

Newton’s third law _______ motion concerns the interaction _____

forces produced ________ objects.

This is the principle ________ action and reaction.

5. Define whether the sentences are true or false.

1) Dynamics is the study of the ways in which objects behave whenthey are acted on by forces.

2) There are many different types of forces but there are only two types of motion produced by those forces.

3) Linear motion is produced when an object is acted on by a force that originates from a central point.

4) Such a quantity, in which both magnitude and direction are specified is called a vector.

5) The velocity of the particle is defined as the rate of change of the displacement with temperature.

6) Multiplying the velocity of an object by its mass gives us another vector quantity — momentum.

7) The first law of motion states that an object will remain at rest or will continue to move uniformly in a straight line at variable velocity unless acted on by a force.

8) The second law states that the rate of change of momentum of an object is proportional to the force acting on it.

9) The third law states that if one object exerts a force on another, that second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.

6. Practice with someone asking and answering.

1) What is dynamics?

2) What are the forces that act on objects?

3) Are there many different types of motion produced by the forces?

4) What happens in linear motion?

5) When is circular motion produced?

6) What is kinematics?

10)7)What is the most basic concept in kinematics?

8) What is the displacement of a particle?

9) What is called «a vector»?

10)What quantity is called «a scalar»?

11)What gives us momentum?

7. Put down the summary of the text.

We consider mastering the ability to read foreign-language text information of professional content to be one of the important features of a modern highly-qualified specialist of any profile of education. In order to receive the newest information in their professional sphere future specialists should be able to acquire various reading techniques and achieve the level of a complete text understanding to meet the whole range of vocational needs. That is why it is so important to provide all the facilities for the development of necessary skills during the ESP course.

References:

  1. Brown, D.S. (1989) A World of Books: An Annotated Reading List for ESL/EFL Students(2nd ed.) Washington, DC: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
  2. Long, Michael & Richards, J. (1987) Methodologyin TESOL, Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
  3. Duke, N. K., and Pearson, D. P. (n.d.). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. Available at //effective reading.com/ (Oct. 15, 2001).
  4. Estes T. H. (1999). Strategies for reading to learn. Available at www.reading strategies.
  5. Barnett, M. A. (1988). Teaching reading in a foreign language. ERIC Digest.

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