Библиографическое описание:

Буранова Г. Б. About east sweets // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №25. — С. 707-709.



Consumer cuisine, food substances differ their taste, smell, appearance and temperature from each other. According to these reasons they are chosen by people. The attractive and tasty one is much more consumed but the unpleasant odor, bitter or sour taste one is not partaken at all. In particular, the musty, outdated and the quality of the food which is poisonous and harmful substances cause unpleasant conditions, undermine health because they protect the consumer desire to put out the reaction in the process of evolutionary development. Such food causes gastro-intestinal regulatory peristaltikani (narrowing of the bowel), then come true moving in the opposite direction vomiting (the reaction). The food`s pleasant taste, fragrance odor and beautiful appearance affect the main centers of the brain. (e.g. the nucleus of the brain hypothalamus) oral cavity stomach and intestines and digestive juice into nerve impulses. As a result of it, such kind of food leads to a diet that can improve your digestive tract. Sweet taste of this place is very special. They are quite a lot of taste receptors on the tongue (nerve endings). These nerve impulses catch up with the center of the bottom of the hypothalamus and reflex with the necessary digestive juice. Other flavor`s (bitter, sour, salty) effects aren`t observed. That`s why people (especially children) are eager for sweets. All candy is characterized by a high level of energy to the body. For example, when 100g halvah consists of 520 cal of energy, if we compare this result with 100 g egg, it has only 150 cal. According to this point of view, when people eat sweets, they get more energy than meat or eggs.

There are variety types of sweets such as East sweets (novvot, parvarda, nisholda, halvah) stand out for its high caloric and digested with a number of sweets and savory products. They have delicious taste, aromatic odor, and attractive appearance. In the preparing process different products are used such as sugar, syrups, fruit jam, oil, dairy products, nuts, almonds, honey, sesame, and others. In the preparation of these sweets mechanical, thermal methods have been used for a long time and the quality of the product has been experienced. The component of the East sweets consists of the following: carbohydrate, a small amount of protein, fats and a lot of vitamins, mineral substances. For instance, a kilo of halvah contains 370–400g carbohydrate, 300–330g fat, 170–190g protein. Oriental (East) sweets have been prepared for many years and several cooking methods are being kept without any changing. The main part of the national sweets consists of sugar. Sugar has a high calorie (1g sugar gives 4g cal energy) which belongs to the group of carbohydrates and set of organic compounds, carbon (c), hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2). Sugar is considered the main raw of the confectionary. In the industry sugar beet and sugar cane are made from the substance of sugar.

There are more than 170 types of the east sweets at present, which are differed their appearance and high quality taste from other sweets. You may choose them according to their components, structure and some features:

  1. Caramel: it includes parvarda, novvot, pashmak, fried sweet nuts and others.
  2. Soft sweets: they are kunjutti halvah, nisholda, halvaytar and etc.
  3. Floury sweets: it includes almond wrap, pakhlava, chak-chak, kush tili and others. In the following some of the oriental sweets (ingredients, preparing and etc.) are given in a briefly way.

Novvot. Preparation way: water and sugar are put into a special cauldron (water around 40 % weight of the sugar) and boiled in the low of temperature. 3–4 row white thread is compiled by putting a parallel in order to turn jam into the crystal and special cauldron which keeps the heat in a normal way is used. Prepared jam cracks are sieved which is 1,5x1,5mm and to form crystals they are put into the special cauldron and for 72 hours it is crystallized. After completion of this process, the remains of juice are separated. Crystals are left in the pot until they harden. Carefully pluck the strings of prepared novvot and take it attentively, crystals clinging to the wall of the boiler are crushed. Syrup and crystal residues of novvot are used for the second time to make a juice.

Chemical composition and nutritional value.The main composition of novvot constitutes of glucose (sugar). There are lump sugar substances which are light digestible, nutritious, easy to shatter and allocate lots of heat almost 100 % in the composition of 1 kg novvot. In addition, there a certain amount of mineral salts (sodium 25mg, potassium 74mg, calcium 55mg, iron 7mg) in the composition of novvot. The nutritional level of 100g novvot is 937 calories.

Healing. Novvot is consumed as a high quality confectionary product. It can be recommended for many diseases. However, if people have some diseases associated with metabolic disorders (obesity disease), in particular, suffering from diabetes, blood pressure isn`t recommended for them.

Nisholdais national sweet, is usually prepared at the wedding, Eid days and in celebrations. To make nisholda, you use water, sugar, whites of egg, the roots of “yetmak” plant.

Syrup is prepared by putting water and sugar into a special cauldron. After “yetmak” plant is cleaned, it is put into the kettle and boiled putting a cup of water out of it. After it is boiled, it is put into an enamel dish and it is cooled a bit. Then, whites of egg is put on it and mix with a chip. After appearing white foam, the syrup continues to be mixed pouring. After it is ready, nisholda will turn into white.

Chemical composition and nutritional value. Nisholda contains a low fat protein, mainly, carbohydrates (50g) and a lump of sugar substance which is easy to digest and has high nutrition. Moreover, nisholda comprises mineral combinations such as iron 15g, but it has very little amount of vitamins. The nutritional level of 100g nisholda has 203cal.

Healing.Nisholda can be recommended for almost all diseases as a sweet. However, it shouldn`t be consumed by people who suffer from diabetes. The properties of nisholda are mainly determined with the roots of “yetmak” plant which nisholda includes. The root of “yetmak” plant includes 10–30 % saponin (Latin sponia- soap, it belongs to a group of glycosides, it is a complex organic compound without nitrogen), as well as 3 molecule xylene and a molecule glykoron acid (it is optical active crystal substance which is formed by oxidation of glucose of the primary alcohol group in animals and plants organisms). Additionally there are some substances such as galoktozo, raminoza, the Euphrates and arabinose (C5, H10,O5 pentose group of simplecarbohydrates (monosaxarid)). Also the root of “yetmak” has a foaming substance. Despite, there are the substances of moving phlegm, strengthening the immune in the composition of yetmak.

Parvarda is consumed both young and old, for preparing of it we use sugar, flour, oil, lemon acid. Sugar and water (the amount of sugar in water consists of 30–40 percent). After boiling for 8–10 minutes, lemon acid is added to it. Mass will be continued until the moisture content of 3–3.5 %. At the end of cooking confectionery product in the pot extension machine, which is cut in the shape of the pillow, and is cooled in the temperature of 20–25 till 18–24 hours. 100g of parvarda has 2.7g protein, 4.3 fat, 82.3g carbohydrate, 73mg calcium, 58mg phosphorus, 11mg magnesium, 0.4mg iron, 0.01mg vitamin A (retinol), 0,22mg Vitamin E (tocopherol), 0.1mg Vitamin B1 (thiamine), 0.1mg Vitamin B2 (ribophlavin), 0.1mg Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), 0,07mg Vitamin PP (niacin), 4 mg of Folic (vitamin B9).

Xolvaytar. Flour is mixed into hot spotted fat. After the flour becomes brown, then we mix it prepared sugar jam, boil it at low fire. After all, we can put ii into plates.

Sesame halvah is a sweet which is prepared with roasted sesame seeds, added whites of egg, whipped diameter 25–30mm. In order to prepare of sesame halvah, firstly sesame seeds are cleaned, fried in 120–130 degree. We should froth the egg white until it becomes foam. In the end, we mix sesame seeds. Prepared product is cooled and shaped a wonderful round.

Magiz halvah. The shell roasted meaning of halvah 500 g peanut anointed spread sheets 1sm thick. Sugar and viscous syrup is cooked. Then cooled and poured straight appearance on the core of this size 4x10sm split into pieces with a sharp knife.

It has more than 6–7 % oil in order to prepare from groundnut. This oil contains unsaturated fatty acids 6–7 %, 9–10 % unsaturated. The amount of protein in the plant an average of 2–2.5 % including nutrients, amino acids, it will be around 29–30 %. At the expense of carbohydrates of substances, such as, 93 mg potassium, 35mgcalcium, 28mg magnesium, and 57mg of phosphorus; vitamins water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, PP1C) are enough. Nutrition of this product is equal 462cal. It is considered high calorie food.

HealingIn order to a lot of beneficial components to the human`s health in it, we advice to consume it instead of cube sugar. Some of the advice of physician disease (lower, an anemia) can be recommended for dessert. However this should be a normal confectionery product, gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure. According to the recommend of the Albanian doctors, confectionery shouldn`t be consumed after a meal, or the palatability of the food to interfere with digestion.

Pakhlava. The way of preparing. Put 5gr salt and flour for knead dough and grant a respite for 30–40 minutes, then divide into the dough bigger than nut after 5–6 minutes roll the dough 1–1,5sm thickness. Milled nuts are fried and we mix them with sugar. We put the dough into pan that was oiled and until being 8–10 floor. Before putting in the oven, egg is smeared. It is cut from middle by edges, with knife and cooked for 10–15 minutes. Honey is smeared into the middle of ready floor.

Chemical composition and nutritional value. Pakhlava which outlined for one person consists of 56gr protein, 91,5 fat and 294,5gr carbohydrate. General amount of protein is higher because of oil (92 %). Rest amount of protein is in consequence of animal protein (8 %). So that useful amino acids portion includes 33 %. The food contains a huge amount of fat- 91,5gr (animal`s fat 70 %, cottonseed oil 29,5 %). Namely it comprises of 80,5 % saturated fat acid. The substance of fat in pakhlava is broken and digested easily in intestinal ways of stomach. The substance of sugar equals to 31 % in the food. In addition, it abounds with full of useful mineral salt (173mg of sodium, 354 mg of potassium, 90 mg calicium, 152 mg of magnesium, 351 mg of phosphorus, 3,5 mg of iron) and vitamins such as (A retinol)- 0,06mg, B1 (tiamin)-0,4 mg, B2 (riboflavin) — 0,3 mg, E (tocopherol) — 21,5mg. this biological active matters develop pakhlava`s value provisions. Pakhlava which outlined for one person person gives equal 1880,5 calories strength. It is nearly 60 % calorie spending for one day. So pakhlava is useful and nourishing foodstuff from the view physiological point.

Healing. Food contains a lot of fruitful substance and nutritional value. It is digested very easily not only for healthy person but for some patients who are suffering chronic diseases (lung and respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and liver, kidney cardiovascular, nervous diseases). At the same time you should consult with doctor.

Taking into consideration, oriental / east sweets are respected because of its own flour diversity, high might and easily digestible. They are consumed in many countries. The most important feature of them is usefulness of strengthening human body but also precluding different disease. Oriental sweets and their important for the human body is not full studied so far carrying out concerning research in this field play an important role.

References:

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  4. Методические рекомендации по вопросам изучения фактического питания и состояния здоровья населения в связи с характером питания / Зайченко А. И., Волгарев М. Н., Бондарев Г.И и др. — Москва. — 1986. — 86 с.
  5. Ўзбек миллий таомлари рецептларининг тўплами. Тошкент, “Меҳнат” 1987 й.
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