Библиографическое описание:

Хэ Б. Juvenile Consciousness on rule of law Investigation and Countermeasures Study — an Empirical Analysis of Survey in Beijing // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №17. — С. 233-241.

The paper investigated and compared 6931students of their cognition and emotion on rule of law, and training methods of their awareness of rule of law. The results show that the cognition of the rule of law presented imbalance among teenagers, the affective variable factors of the rule of law are complicated. The results also suggested that the development of consciousness of rule of law has an individual passive mode and vivid features and law education of youngsters, pluralistic social environment for adolescent awareness rule of Law will have a significant impact. Therefore, we have to make a overall plan to enhance Juvenile Consciousness of the rule of law, to further promote the rule of law education into the national education system, improve law enforcement, judicial credibility, strengthen guide management, and actively promote the rule of law in family education to create a good social environment and atmosphere for public opinion. Moreover, we have to continue to improve young people’s culture of internal and external conditions awareness of the rule of laws, to build national, school, family and society, «four in one» teen Law missionary pattern, promote the overall construction of the rule of law.

Keywords: rule of law cognition, emotion on rule of law, promotion and education of rule of law

The 4th plenary session of 18th CPC Central Committee raised the idea to comprehensive promote the rule of law and made a strategic and systematic deployment to enhance the concept of universal rule of law, promote the social rule of law. The rule of law as an important part of modern society citizens’ training is very meaningful in enhancing awareness of the rule of law for teens to achieve universal compliance, promoting social development with rule of law. «On the implementation of The 4th plenary session of 18th CPC Central Committee ‘s decision to further deepen the reform of the judicial system and social plan» made it clear that the rule of law education should be put into the national education system and develop the plan of establishment of the rule of law awareness programs at schools. «Education Law Implementation Outline (2016–2020)" issued by the Ministry of Education in 2016 proposed to the preparation of «Youth Legal Education Program», specifically from basic to higher education, the goals of education and learn the rule of law, tasks, content and requirements, the establishment of the rule of law awareness programs in schools. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the legal status of adolescent consciousness, scientific planning, content design teenagers legal education, information, and training for adolescents to enhance awareness of the rule of law is of great practical significance.

First, the issues raised and research methods.

Awareness of the rule of law is a state of mind with regard to the rule of law as a member of an independent subject of social practice in the formation of ideas, knowledge, ideology in general, is in line with the legal awareness of social rule of law requirements, is the perception of the law and legal phenomena and the highest level of consciousness of the legal norms of a sense of identity. Conscious teenagers rule of law is a direct reflection of youth groups for awareness and acceptance of the rule of law, and can have an important impact on their behavior patterns ideological paradigm. It reflects the level of awareness of young people and the basic law for the law and the utility function, trust and reliance on formed this perception. It generally consists of cognitive law, the rule of law constitute emotional two aspects, from the knowledge base, value judgments, conduct a comprehensive orientation and so reflect the overall level of awareness of the rule of law. The survey formed on the cognitive, emotional and legal awareness of the rule of law rule of law adolescent ways to expand, specific research methods are as follows:

  1. Sample selection.

The survey was targeted at Beijing middle school students (including three who started all six of the highest grades). In order to ensure representative results of this survey stratified cluster random sampling, the sampling guiding principles are set as followings: Beijing's 16 administrative districts, each district are by the municipal model school, model school district, Common End, the junior high school and vocational school and other schools of five layers, and each layer random sampling is determined within a school. Each sample is relevant to all grade schools were involved in the investigation, usually randomly selected by each year a class of about 40 people participated in the survey, the number of single-class enough then randomly selected two classes. A research sub volume (adolescent daily life and social philosophy questionnaire) and B questionnaire (adolescent physical development and mental health questionnaire), awareness of the rule of law is part of the A volume. AB two volumes simultaneously surveying randomly selected half of the students in each class to answer anonymously A volume, the other half of the students answered an anonymous B-roll. Selected a sample class hours of complete reunification of the time Surveying and questionnaires were collected.

Data collection 2015 April — What may to carry out the last statistics show that Beijing 16 administrative districts and counties 100 public high schools participated in the survey. School type and ratio of the sample are as shown in Figure 1.The sample, men are 44.9 % and women are 55.1 %. The survey covered mainly high school students aged 12 years old and 18 years (Figure 2). Investigation issued a total awareness of the rule of law item questionnaire containing 7700 parts recovered answer questionnaires 7271, the recovery rate was 94.4 %. The data sample inclusion criteria, the rule of law awareness part of 6931 valid questionnaires, the effective rate was 90 %.

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

  1. The survey methodology/

Law Consciousness part self questionnaire, pen and paper to answer, concerning the basic situation of the respondents, the level of understanding of the legal name and the rule of law, trust and respect for the law degree of awareness and youth to form three aspects of the rule of law and other ways, related survey results are measured in percentage statistics. SPSS22 is used for statistical processing

Second, the analysis of the survey results.

  1. Legal recognition: Teen understanding of the name of the law and the rule of law.

Investigations by selecting and young people learn life more closely eight law, the results show (Table 1): the awareness of «Protection of Minors Act», «constitution», «Consumer Protection Law», «Criminal Law» these 4laws were more than 80 %, «protection of minors Act» has reached more than 90 %; «road traffic safety law», «prevention of juvenile delinquency Act», «security administration punishment law», «Civil Law» awareness lowest, only 32.8 %. Chi-square test showed a significant difference between the results, 2 = 2753.14, df = 7, p <.001, there is a difference of teenagers described in Table 1 of several legal awareness.

Table 1

Have you heard these laws?





«Protection of Minors Act»






«Consumer Protection Law»



«Criminal Law»



«Road Traffic Safety Law»



«Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency»



«Security Administration Punishment Law»



«Civil Law»


Setting the title by choosing the most direct and youth closely legal rules related to test their fundamental rights, laws and regulations, the level of understanding and ability to discern offenses daily living, the results in Table 2 and Table 3.

Table 2

Teen rules of law related to the daily awareness of the vital interests



Your classmates in Internet cafes to play online games because domestic violence is the father, this is your view:(«Protection of Minors Act», Article 10, paragraph 2, Article 36)


Two high school students out to play, did not go home late, did not tell their parents, their parents either did not interfere, did not go, do you think their parents practice is illegal:(«Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency Act», twenty Article)


The answer items do chi-square test or false dichotomy division, the results show the correct answer for the father of domestic violence behavior was significantly higher response rate error, 2 = 3695.23, df = 1, p <.001. When parents night out for teenagers not as a correct response rate was significantly lower than the error response rate, 2 = 20.1, df = 1, p <.001.

Table 3

Young people involved in the daily behavior of the rule of law awareness

Which of the following behavior you might try

Unselected rate

Picked up 1000 dollars, others did not see that he used to buy something («Civil Law» Article 92)


Students with lower grades points with pocket money («Public Security Administration Punishment Law» Article 26)


Often with a knife for self-defense («Security Administration Punishment Law» Article 32)


Friends bullied by others, in order to look for opportunities to vent for a friend and fight with others («Security Administration Punishment Law» Article 43)


A friend along to help keep items («Security Administration Punishment Law» Article 60)


Cycling with a person («the implementation of Beijing


Listed in Table 3 for various offenses, chi-square test showed significant differences answered, 2 = 2330.3, df = 5, p <.001. It shows that teenagers are different to the above types of conduct illegal and harmful awareness.

  1. Rule emotion: Teen degree of trust and respect for the law/

On «juvenile violence», the title survey (Table 4): 78.7 % of teenagers believe that the law and the judiciary to effectively maintain social justice, and the choice of A, C two, do not trust the public relief, rather tend to choose private power relief together accounted for 19 %. Chi-square test results shown in Table 4. 4 class options significantly different, 2 = 10783.3, df = 3, p <.001. Described the vast majority of teens believe that the law should and can maintain social justice.

Table 4

In May 2014, areal shot video on the Internet was crazily scatted three men had hit ateenager for 8 minutes and 40 seconds with elbowing, kicking, stoning and the juvenile was beaten several times to fall to the ground, and some men even peed on the teenager’s head regarding to this event, what is your point of view?



A very common phenomenon, the fundamental law and the judiciary to discipline yourself not hard fist can only recognize the counseling.


B behavior of the three men, although illegal, but very cool, very exciting, if there’s a chance, he or she also wants to try.


C three men's actions, while illegal, but as long as they have the money have the same background can escape justice, impunity.


DI feel pity for the beaten boy, and I am angry about that hit behavior,I strongly suggest that the attackers should be punished by the law


Title «for traffic rules, your view is» the survey results (Table 5): The answer items do unconditional compliance with (A) and conditions bargaining (BCD) after two sub-processor combination classes conducted contingency table chi-square test, 2 = 36.7, df = 5, p <.001. The results showed that most teenagers should represent unconditional compliance with the established rules. But also saw growth with grade willing to unconditionally comply with traffic rules gradually decreased in proportion.

Table 5

For traffic rules, your view is


First-year junior high school

Second-year junior high school

Third-year junior high school

First-year high school

Second-year high school

Third-year high school

the proportion of the total

A No matter what happens, we should strictly abide by traffic rules enshrined.








B I do not think we must follow rigid rules of the road to walk, I am more concerned about the easy access problem.








C Under C in most cases, I do not obey the traffic rules because of poor road conditions.








D I think it is unreasonable to develop traffic rules, so I do not want to comply with these rules of the road.








  1. Legal Awareness formation pathway.

«Are you in the following ways to obtain legal knowledge» survey (Table 6), given 14 ways, choose the proportion exceeds 50 % of the 9 species, indicating the formation of legal consciousness teenagers are more diverse ways, in different ways there is a big difference in the degree of influence on the way young people. Among them, the high degree of influence school classroom education, network news, the rule of law relating to television programs on the rule of law forming adolescent awareness are more than 85 per cent, and to participate in legal knowledge contests, attend a public trial court, to law firms and other legal service agencies Consulting the extent of the impact is less than 20 %. Chi-square test showed differences in the role of a variety of ways to get teens significant legal knowledge, 2 = 9719.6, df = 13, p <.001.

«All of the above ways, your favorite one kind of» survey (Table 6), given 14 ways, choose the rule of law relating to television, cinema or television, network news, the four school classroom education a higher proportion of ways, and attend a public trial court, actively searching for on the Internet, the rule of law brochures, radio broadcasting law, legal knowledge to participate in the competition, to law firms and other legal services agency advisory, street legal advertising, display panels, etc. for adolescents less attractive. Chi-square test showed that adolescent subjective differences in liking the way the rule of law missionary significantly, 2 = 5166.4, df = 13, p <.001.

Table 6

Juvenile Law Awareness Training education



favorite way

The way to acquire knowledge of the law


rule of law relating to television programs




watch movies or TV shows




Net News




school classroom education




communicate with their parents




peer group communication




Experts report Lecture




attend court public trial




active in the online search




Law brochure




radio broadcasting




participated in legal knowledge contest




to law firms and other legal services consulting




street legal advertising, display panels and other



Third, research and discussion.

  1. Juvenile Law presented cognitive imbalance.

Survey results show that the different name of the law and the rule of law, there is a large degree of teenagers know the difference, cognitive content presentation imbalance. First, in relation to the same branches of law, on the «Protection of Minors Act», the name of the rule and awareness are high, while the «Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency», the name and rules alerted extent are low. These two laws are closely related to adolescent growth and development, it is the result of differences in the cognitive level, on the one hand due to the local laws and regulations that Beijing has not yet issued «Regulations on Preventing Juvenile Delinquency», resulting in far less aware of the extent of Beijing City supporting local laws and regulations «protection of minors Act», on the other hand the law itself operability is not strong, the lack of effective outreach related to the starting point. Secondly, in relation to the different branches of law, awareness of «Civil Law» name awareness and «Consumer Protection Law» lower specific rules, instructions teenagers for the lower levels of civil and commercial awareness, and the «Criminal Law» there is a certain gap «security administration punishment law» and other public law legal categories. Although the traditional influence of Characteristics of Ancient Legal Culture in this regard, on the other hand also with China has not yet promulgated the Civil Code, on the lack of civil and commercial law related outreach. Finally, the same name and the specific rules of the law, the legal name of the adolescents' awareness of and extent of the specific rules of law do not have to master the necessary positive relationship. Such as adolescents, «Public Security Administration Punishment Law» name awareness is relatively low, only 58.1 %, but this method involves prohibition rules, the correct answer to a higher rate (the lowest ratio of 79.8 %). This is because the law for the offense is often an important part of adolescent daily behavior norms of education. This shows that sex education for young people daily behavior norms is an important way to enhance the legal awareness level of teenagers.

  1. The Juvenile Justice Law emotional environment, values, socialization, and many other factors influenced by/

Trust young people from the legal point of view, the data in Table 4 shows that 78.7 % of young people trust the rule of law, but also the role of 19 % of young people do not trust the law and its implementation, the emergence of conflicts and disputes tend to «silence» or private relief resort to alternative legal solution. «Money worship», «rule of man thinking» is an important reason for this distrust, indicating that adolescents trust the rule of law depends not only on the complete extent of the law itself, but also directly affected by multiple factors in the social atmosphere, judicial environment, such as the relationship of the right and the law, the relationship between law and morality, law enforcement judicial credibility and so on.

From teenagers’ degree of respect for the law point of view, the data in Table 5 shows that although teenagers respect the rules, maintain awareness of the overall legal authority in good condition, but with the growth of grades, choose to comply with legal rules in descending order of proportion. High school teenagers, individual consciousness, high level of socialization, while leaving because of academic pressure to reduce the strength of the rule of law education, the degree of respect for the law is often less than the low-grade adolescents, such as grade three select A for the observance of traffic rules 78.1 % Select the first grade than the proportion (86.2 %) lower by 8.1 percentage points. This shows that awareness of the rule of law education and training is not once and for all, older adolescents, the higher the level of socialization, the more awareness education should strengthen the rule of law.

  1. Rule of Law conscious teenagers having single mode passive and vivid visualization features.

Survey shows that the impact of school classroom education, network news, the rule of law relating to television programs on the rule of law awareness teenagers formed more than 85 %, whereas these three methods are based on single infusion guide in the form of passive acceptance enable young people, their parents, peer groups this interactive way to communicate the impact of accounting for respectively 76.1 %, 64.7 %, proactive approach to law firms and other legal service advice only 11.3 %, indicating that adolescents are more likely to get legal knowledge of passive acceptance, interactive the communication followed, tendency actively acquire knowledge of the law is weak. Which occupy the highest percentage of school classroom education is the most effective way to consciousness of teenagers Rule of Law. Therefore, pay special attention to strengthening the rule of law and strengthening design education in primary school classroom this battlefield. At the same time, the Internet has become an important way of information and awareness of key areas affecting teenagers Rule of Law, in particular the impact was great news network, and the school classroom education is almost the same. This means that in addition to the rule of law education into the classroom, but also the need to strengthen the rule of law education and guidance network information, education and information so that the Internet has become a positive classroom education complementary relationship, to avoid the negative impact of bad network information for the rule of law education. In addition, the way the attractiveness of perspective, teen favorite fresh vivid and intuitive way the rule of law mission, such as the rule of law relating to television programs, watch movies or TV shows and other traditional static methods such as the text of the rule of law missionary pamphlets, street legal advertising, display panels, etc., have not attractive. Therefore, the future formation of the rule of law foster awareness designed in a way to be passive and vivid visualization of individual characteristics of the organic integration of the two, maximize awareness of the rule of law culture to enhance the effect.

Fourth, Reflections and recommendations.

Work should be done to raise Legal awareness of childhood enlightenment and legal literacy to training system. Young people are in the formation of outlook of the world, life and values and their sense of the rule of law will not form spontaneously, but must rely on external publicity and education Therefore, to break the current problems existing in the rule of law awareness adolescents, teenagers need to follow to raise the overall awareness of the rule of law objectives and requirements, to build national, school, family and society, «four in one» Teen Law missionary pattern.

  1. Focus on teenagers Law Awareness Training to enhance co-ordination of planning/

Groups of young people to develop awareness of the rule of law on the formation of the future of society and the consolidation of the rule of law plays a vital role. There was a need to develop awareness of Adolescent enhance the rule of law as a dedicated co-ordinate a strategy to continue to promote the content. Conceptually from simple «legal education» into a comprehensive «legal consciousness» to enhance the culture, not only to achieve universal access to education of legal knowledge, but also to focus on training young people and firm rule of law and good emotional behavior habits, tips the use of the rule of law and the concept of the rule of law thinking, respect tolaw. Give full play to the functions of propaganda, culture, education departments and people's organizations in the legal education, relying on state organs «Who Enforcement Who popularizing» the Franco-Prussian accountability, the establishment of judges, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, lawyers for the law enforcement process system teens education law norms, leading the formation of party committees and governments, school social work pattern to participate.

  1. Enhance law enforcement, judicial credibility.

The party's eighteen Fourth Plenary Session stressed the authority of the law from the heart and sincere support of the faith of the people. Support and faith are the result of a fair and effective implementation of the law. The foregoing analysis shows that the rule of law emotion teenagers affected judicial environment, social trends, and many other factors, the strict enforcement of judicial conduct impartial, fair and just legal environment is important to cultivate the soil adolescent consciousness rule of law. Therefore, law enforcement on the one hand to the judiciary to uphold principles of law, adherence to laws, norms discretion, fair and impartial administration of justice to do law enforcement, in particular, according to the law and properly handle major sensitive cases good public concern and interest in the case of incidents involving juveniles, continued enhance the credibility of the community to create positive energy; on the other hand to adhere to procedural justice, not to eliminate, as chaos, as incomplete, and implement the special procedural rules concerning youth protection, and strive to ensure that judicial handling of procedural justice, but also we should actively explore in handling cases involving juveniles in compliance with the requirements of physical and mental development of young people working model, and the Franco-Prussian at work, role in law enforcement, so that young people feel the legal authority, fairness and caring.

  1. Further promote the rule of law education into the national education system.

Education authorities should adhere to the principle of the main channel of the rule of law awareness classroom education provided legal education courses in the education system independent and continue to effectively carry out educational activities, to change the current status of the rule of law awareness programs relying on the moral, ideological and political curriculum, arrange independent the lesson plans and teachers, highlighting the rule of law and the independence of the importance of knowledge of the course, the rule of law to ensure the continuity of the course of education. To focus on the rule of law to address adolescent cognitive level of imbalance, to develop a comprehensive legal education programs, scientific, systematic, rule of law textbooks, centered on the Constitution and the relevant laws and regulations related to citizens' basic rights and obligations and adolescent growth and development into syllabus textbooks content, paying particular attention to «prevention of Juvenile delinquency Act» and daily life involved in civil and commercial law, rules of conduct and other bottom line into them, the effective promotion of the rule of law overall cognitive teenagers, students good at using legal methods to resolve conflicts and disputes of good habits. Development of audiovisual education in line with the rule of law to write young students cognitive characteristics and capacities of understanding, video materials, used in classroom teaching use, the use of new media and distributed Internet terminal equipment to promote and enhance participation of young people learning initiative.

  1. Strengthen the Rule of Law and the boot management.

Research shows that school education is the main battlefield of the rule of law and the position of adolescent education, must play a leading role model driven. Schools should establish and improve the discovery of juvenile delinquency, treatment, intervention mechanism, according to the law, fair and just settlement of all types of students appear contradictory problems, enhance the quality of teachers rule of law, and resolutely put teachers violated the legal rights of students, for young people to establish awareness of the rules, the concept of good education fair example. To strengthen the guidance and management of adolescent proper use Internet terminals to prevent the adverse impact of the site, microblogging, letters and other false, negative information on young people's ideological consciousness, rational view of public events guide young people and the rule of law. Research shows that the average age of teenagers first occurrence of bad behavior is only 12.25 years, which coincided with the age of transition from primary to junior high school stage, so to «Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency Act», the educational content provided in the upper primary stage begins open, forward the prevention of juvenile delinquency Legal Education mark. Meanwhile, with the upgrading of student age, grade growth, we must continue to increase the rule of law and education efforts to prevent young people in individual socialization process due to lead to a decline ignore the rule of law and legal awareness education.

  1. Actively promote family education law.

Family education has a pivotal role in the growth of young people, especially teenagers to cultivate awareness of the rule of law form a direct and profound impact. Survey results show that 76.1 % of young people through the exchange of legal knowledge with parents, parents understand the law, and the emotional level of trust in the law, the value tends to affect the formation of adolescent awareness of the rule of law. Therefore, the need to develop parent education, the rule of law as a parent education and vocational education an important part of promoting the rule of law education rising proportion of families in education. On the one hand to help parents improve their legal literacy, understand and comply with, «Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency Act», Content «Domestic Violence Law» and «Law on the Protection of Minors», on the other hand its positive guidance in their daily lives to their children conduct legal education, focusing on daily communication, focus on training of their children good habits and good at guiding young people to establish awareness of the rules by events around the typical case, the concept of fairness, law-abiding behavior.

  1. Create a good social environment and atmosphere for public opinion.

For adolescents with age, socialization raise overall awareness of the rule of law will be to reduce the problem, it is necessary to make greater efforts in terms of creating a good social environment and public opinion atmosphere. By relying on the community to carry out the rule of law seminars, exchange report, legal advice, assistance cases; relying on law enforcement, the judiciary law enforcement judicial observation, theme Open Day; rely on education, justice and other departments to establish the rule of law adolescent education website, microblogging, micro letter public number; relying on news broadcasting sector creative play television programs works about the rule of law education for young people, themed entertainment interactive activities; relying on the Communist youth League and other organizations to carry out anti-drug education, moot court, theatrical performances, a variety of legal and cultural activities; relying on professional social organizations in education treatment services, legal aid services, etc., to build a comprehensive legal education and training of adolescent social network system. On the other hand, to strengthen the network news media supervision, and resolutely crack down on Internet rumors, Internet libel, «cyberbullying» and other criminal acts, active anti-law regulation of information in the Internet and mobile media pornographic, violence, vulgar, correct the rule of law to guide the news media reported the event objectively positive, positive energy promoting the rule of law, and other regulatory initiatives to create a good cultural environment of public opinion.


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