Библиографическое описание:

Закирова Ш. Т. Сlimatic regime of the new continent of dried area of Aral Sea // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №15. — С. 225-227.



The article shows that the climatic regime of the dried bottom of Aral Sea of Kazakhstan and the surrounding area is influenced by continental climate conditions of the Turan lowland. According to the authors, high aridity in the regime is the constraints of land cover and economic development of the territory.

Located on the southern side of the Eurasian continent, the Aral Sea basin climatic regime formed by atmospheric air movements in the region. Climate is continental, with hot summers and dry winters with little snow and cold. Therefore, days, months, year’s continental signs are notable. In summer, the temperature is not so much faltered. The average annual temperature is around 7–8ºC. The highest temperature + 26–27, 6ºC (July), the minimum temperature in January 11,3–13,4ºC. A very large annual variation in temperature is up to 78ºC, with less precipitation. In the summer months it is neither cloudy nor foggy, and open water surface evaporation level is very high. Sometimes in winter months there are very cold winds blown to the north of Aral from Kar Sea, so the temperature goes down to -30ºC. But that cold reaches only the middle regions, therefore it is rarely cold in the Southern part of Aral (Moinak). Sometimes low pressure tropical air comes from the Northern India to Aral. Then the temperature rises up to + 35–40ºC. These are the characteristics of the climate of Aral. Aral Sea itself has a certain extent influence to the surrounding regions. Sea pressure rises during the summer months, and the wind often blows ashore from the sea. Because of the effects of the Aral Sea there is a slight increase of the temperature in the winter and a slight decrease (+ 2ºC) during the summer months in the wilderness surroundings. A wide range of new land has appeared on a place of the deserted sea, which has now become a hearth that spreads salt dust to the surrounding area. The climate of the new island is completely different from what it was before, because there are some increasing continental signs. The evidence of that is the strong wind which blows hard in recent years in the winter months. It cracks the soil without any vegetation. Such a phenomenon occurs in the summer months which show a new climate change regime. Each of the indicators in comparison with the average temperature in January is strong disorders observed (Table 1). The comparison of the average temperature in January of each year indicates strong disorders (Table 1).

On the table we can see that the average temperature at the end of January in 2010 is -13ºC and -9,9ºC at the same period in 2011, in 2012 this figure rose to -4,2ºC.

Table 1

The table of the average temperature ºС

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

2010

-13

-9,3

-2

10,8

17,2

29,3

29,6

26,9

17,4

2011

-9,9

-10,5

4,6

12,4

22,2

25,1

25,6

24,5

16,3

2012

-4,2

-0,6

6,1

8,3

16,3

22,5

28,2

26,2

19,8

In February 2011, the monthly average temperature rose up to -0,6ºC it shows that there is a change in the temperature regime of vibrations. And we often hear that in the following years the world is getting warmer temperatures. And maybe it is too early to say that the unstable monthly average temperature in the Aral region is under the influence of «greenhouse effect». However, the effect can not be abnegated. The weather does not become permanent because of the continental climate of the region. Thus, present ecological crisis that in its turn creates degraded nature leads to the disorders in climatic regime. If so, the composition of the new plant on land at sea can not be resulted in excessive biomass. This in turn remains as a limiting factor of new distribution of a wide range of animal life on the continent.

Generally from the early times Aral region is lack of percipitation. According to the Aral and Kazaly hydrometeostation the long-term average of annual precipitation in the region is about 90–110 mm. Of course,we cannot say this is the stable indicator. In some years there might be more and the next years less of precipitation expected. Therefore, long-term average amount of percepitation does not deviate much from the existing level. According to the fact that the amount of rainfall in the Aral region in 1998 was only 90 mm, of that 34 mm fell in March and the rest 13mm in August. In 2010, in only 8 months (January-August) the level of the rainfall has reached 134.4 mm (Table 2).

Table 2

Level of precipitation (mm)

Year

Months

Annual level

І

ІІ

ІІІ

ІҮ

Ү

ҮІ

ҮІІ

ҮІІІ

ІХ

Х

ХІ

ХІІ

2010

12,9

2,5

5,3

11,7

3,8

7,6

11,3

4,7

5,6

15,2

11

13,7

105,3

2011

20,6

13,6

25,7

36,0

55

24,9

0,1

0,5

0,9

10

9

14,5

210,3

2012

19

15

32

35

64

26

1

4,0

-

-

-

-

196

Comments: There are only 8 months’ data provided in the table. In 2012, there was a lot of rain in the region, and a lot of atmospheric moisture on a new land on a place of the sea. During 8 months the level of precipitation reached 196 mm. Especially it was a lot in May of that year. This led to the natural green grass growth in some areas of the new land. As an example we can note the area between Kaskakulan and Zhyngyltup, the second was on the shore of the former sea. Although in 2002 the green grass growth was thick, it did not cover the entire ground surface. Accorting to the research conducted in 2010 the plantation on the East of Kaskakulan was dense, and empty ground was barely seen. As well as saxaul processess there were various types of grass and ephemers showing the pros of the high level of rainfall.

Previously, when Aral Sea was full the water vaporation used to create a pleasant microclimate for the living flora and fauna. After a large part of the sea wizened dry air seems to have strenghtened. The increase of humid air in Aral coincides with the first and fourth quarters of the year. At this point, when there is more rain and cold weather the water evaporation level is less. But the humidity of the air during this time has no benefits to the plants.

The more atmospheric dry air grows the more lack (deficiency) of moisture. Earlier, the thick grass cover around the shores of lake systems and the surrounding area, as well as the the water of the Aral Sea vaporization created particularly mild microclimate in the region. Consequently air is dry during summer months, although there is not much lack of water indicated by millibars. During the period of time that has passed since then as a result of large-scale environmental changes that have occurred in the region major part of the Aral Sea dried up, many of the lakes have dried up. Dried lakes bacame a place to distribute salt dust. After all this is because there is no water in the volatile which leads to the lackof moisture. Information available from the end of 2011 compared with the data from the 70 years of the last century indicates a very high value of the shortage of moisture in the air.

Because of the cold weather in the first quarter of the year the level of moisture in the air is higher then the value of millibars is lower. In some years if the spring is rainy then the weather is cold. In such case the value of shortage of moisture in the air is lower. And in other years the level of precipitation is higher but the spring comes early. Then the humidity in the air increases. The period with the driest air in the region is in June and July months. According to our data the average value of the dryness of the air in June was 26,3–33,3 mb. This year, as there is a lot of precipitation in the summer, dryness of the air seems not very strong.

Finally, there is the presence of some change in the elements of the climate in the Aral region. It can be seen from the increased dryness of the air, the instability of the level of precipitation, and strong winds blown in the winter months. The situation is to strengthen the overall degradation of nature in this region.

At the moment, the climate of the new land at the Aral Sea is becoming similar to the climate of the surrounding desert. Before Aral Sea reduced its severe impact on the wildlife of Turan basin and worked as a buffer. Now the new land is to strengthen the development of the desert in ecologically unfavorable direction.

References:

  1. Nurgyzarynov A. M., Shapshanov K.Sh., Ecelogy of Aral region. Kyzylorda, 1996.
  2. The formation of the new land on a place of the wizened Aral Sea and its economical development with the aim of rehabilitation of the population. A scientific report of the 2009 economical agreement. Kyzylorda-2009.

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