Библиографическое описание:

Машарипова Н. О., Норбаева С. М. Analysis of proverbs and sayings used in book of nouns of sound words (Diwan Lugat at-Turk) // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №13. — С. 698-700.



Adroitness and helplessness (Epchillik va noshudlik).

Lexical analysis: adiy- ayiq- bear; Turkish proverb: «Awçi naça al bilsa adiy ança yöl bilir».

Uzbek translation: «Ovchi qancha ov hiylalarini bilsa, ayiq ham shuncha qochish yo`llarini biladi». Bu maqol ikki tajribali kishi tortishib qolganda so`zlanadi. Uzbek proverb: Ovchi qancha ayyor bo`lmasin, tulki undan ham ayyor.

English translation: «As many tricks as the hunter knows the bear knows ways (of escape)». This is coined about two clever people who have a dispute.

English proverb: The fox knows much, but more he that cachet him.

Lexical analysis: al— hiyla, frib, tadbir— cunning, deceit;

Turkish proverb: «Alin arslan tutar,kuçun oyuq tutmas». Uzbek translation: «Hiyla bilan arslon tutilar, kuch bilan uyuq tutilmas». Kuch bilan polizlarda o`tqazib qo`yilgan qo`g`irchoq-qo`riqchini ham tutib bo`lmaydi. Bu maqol kuch bilan ishni bitira olmaganlarga alohida tadbir qo`llash kerak degan ma`noda qo`llaniladi.

English translation: «You can capture a lion by trickery but you cannot capture a scarecrow by force.» This is coined to advise a person to use trickery for something when he cannot get it by force [1, р. 92].

Lexical analysis: anut- sharob quyadigan voronka- funnel (qam`) for wine;

Turkish proverb: «Bart kiçig bolsa anut badük ür». Uzbek translation: «Idish teshigi kichik bo`lsa, katta voronka qo`y». Bu maqol kichik ishni katta qilib ko`rsatadigan kishiga nisbatan qo`llaniladi. English translation: «When the wine measure is small, put in a big funnel.» This is coined to advise someone to pretend to people that a small matter is big.

Honesty and spongerness (Halollik va tekinxo`rlik).

Lexical analysis: azuq – oziq, oziq-ovqat – provisions.

Turkish proverb: «Azuqi ariy bolsa yöl üza yer». Uzbek translation: «Savdogarning moli toza, beshubha bo`lsa, yo`l ustida yeydi». Bu maqol aytgan so`zining uddasidan chiqa olmagan, ququq maqtanchoqlarga nisbatan qo`llaniladi.

Uzbek proverbs: Mehnatingni halol qilsang, huzurini ko`rasan.

Halol molning qulfi o`zida bo`lar.

English translation: «When a merchant`s provisions are clean, he can eat them (sitting) on the (open) road.» This is coined about someone who brags about his royalty but runs away when it comes to proving it. English proverb: Honesty is the best policy.

Lexical analysis: uldan- pocha — sole of a shoe (asfal al-xuff);

Turkish proverb: «Itqa uwut itsa uldang yemas».

Uzbek translation: «Itga uyat kelsa, oriyat qilsa, pocha tashlasang ham yemaydi». Bu maqolni zarur o`rinlarda yomon bir ishdan uyalib, o`zini tortuvchilarga qo`llaniladi.

English translation: «If one beats modesty into a dog it will not eat the sole of a shoe.» This is coined to advise someone to behave modestly. The meaning is: One who is forced to be modest stops his bad behavior.

Lexical analysis: agri — har bir egri va qiyshiq narsa — anything «crooked(mu'wajj)»;

Turkish proverb:«Yilan kandu agrisin bilmas, tewe boynin agri ter».

Uzbek translation: «Ilon o`zining egriligini bilmaydi-da, tuyaning bo`ynini egri deydi». Bu maqol birovning aybini so`zlovchi g`iybatchilarga nisbatan qo`llaniladi [2, р. 58].

Uzbek proverb: Ko`za choynakni qora dermish.

English translation: «The snake does not know its own crookedness (iwaj)but claims that the camel's neck is crooked (mu'wajj).»This is coined about someone who lays blame where he himself is to blame.

Lexical analysis: ol ar olturdi- u odam o`tirdi -the man (or other) sat down (jalasa);

Turkish proverb: «Bütün ümlüg qanca qolsa olturur». Uzbek translation: «Butun ishtonlik (ishtoni butun) qanday xohlasa, shunday o`tiraveradi». Bu maqol gunohsiz odam, hech qanday tuhmat bilan qoralanmaydi, degan mazmunda qo`llaniladi. Uzbek proverb: Gunohsiz odam podshodan qo`rqmas. English translation: «One whose trousers are sound sits as he wishes.» This is coined about one who is sure of his own chastity (ma'mun al-izar)and does not worry about suspicion.

Lexical analysis: bulit — bulut — cloud(sahaba);

Turkish proverb: «Qara bulitig yel acar, urunc bila el acar». Uzbek translation: «Qora bulut osmonni qoplab olganda uni shamol uchiradi, shuningdek, hukumat eshigini pora ochadi». Bu maqol ishni bitirish uchun pora berish kerakligiga undab aytiladi.

English translation: «When a black cloud covers the sky, the wind clears it away; similarly, a bribe opens the door of state.» This is coined to advise someone to spend money in order to attain his desire.

Lexical analysis: tütün- tutun— smoke (duxan);

Turkish proverb: Ot tütünsüz bolmas, yigit yazuqsuz bolmas. Uzbek translation: «Olov tutunsiz bo`lmas, yigit gunohsiz bo`lmas». English translation: «No fire without smoke, no youth without sin.»

Guest and hospitality (Mehmon va mehmondo`stlik)

Lexical analysis: anuq nan-mavjud narsa -something ready;

Turkish proverb: «Anuq utru tutsa yöqqa sanmas». Uzbek translation: «Mehmonga bor taom taqdim qilingach, ko`rmadim demaydi». Bu maqol uy egasi bor narsasini mehmonga taqdim qilishi zarurligiga ishorat qilib aytiladi. Uzbek proverb: Mehmon kelsa choptirar, bor-yo`g`ingni toptirar. English translation: «If one offers what food is available (to the guest then hospitality) is not reckoned as nought.» This is coined to advise a person to offer what he can as host.

English proverb: Aconstant guest is never welcome [1, р. 78].

Lexical analysis: üma- uyga kelgan qo`noq, mehmon— guest (dayf) who stays in one`s house;

Turkish proverb:»Üma kalsa qut kalir». Uzbek translation:»Mehmon kelsa, qut kelar». Senga mehmon kelsa, u bilan birga baraka, qut, baxt keladi. Qo`noq (mehmon)ni yaxshi qarshi oladilar, malol olmaydilar. Uzbek proverb: Mehmon kelar eshikdan, rizqi kelar teshikdan.

English translation: «When a guest comes (to you) good luck comes (with him).»

That is, he should be considered a blessing, not a burden.

«When a guest comes (to you) tattered and distressed, then offer (him) what food is available and don't keep him waiting and hoping.»

Upbringing and custom (Tarbiya va odat)

Lexical analysis: uluq-ot kuragining old qismi -withers of ahorse;

Turkish proverb: «Uluq yayri oyülqa qalir». Uzbek translation: «Ot kuragidagi yag`ir bolalariga meros bo`lib qoladi». Chunki pay tomirlari u yerga to`planganligi uchun tez tuzalmaydi. Uzbek proverb: Yelka yag`ri- otaga meros, ota yag`ri o`g`ilga meros.

English translation: «The sore of the withers remains (an inheritance) for the son.» This means that it will not heal quickly since it is the place where the joints and sinews are gathered.

English proverb: Like father, like son.

Lexical analysis: it isirdi- it qopdi, tishladi— the dog (or other) bit (adda);

Turkish proverb: «It isirmas at tapmas tema».

Uzbek translation:«It qopmaydi, ot tepmaydi dema». Chunki bu odat ularning tabiatida bordir.

Uzbek proverbs:Tepmas ot yo`q, qopmas it yo`q.

It itligini etar, to`n etagini yirtar.

English translation: «Don`t say that the dog won`t bite (ya`qiru) and the horse won`t kick»- since that is what they are likely to do.

Lexical analysis: tay atitdi- toy ot bo`ldi, toy ulg`ayib otlar qatoriga o`tdi, ot hisoblandi — the colt was reckoned to be a horse(tafarrasa... ay 'udda min al-fursan);

Turkish proverb: «Tay atitsa at tinur, oyul aradsa ata tinur».

Uzbek translation: «Toy ulg`aysa, ot tinadi (ya`ni ot minishdan qutqariladi), o`g`il o`ssa, ota tinadi (ya`ni bola topgan hosil otani tindiradi)». Uzbek proverb: Ot o`rnini toy bosar, ota o`rnini- o`g`il. English translation: «When the colt is reckoned a horse, the horse rests (meaning the stal-lion rests from being mounted); when the boy is counted among the men, the father rests (since he can free him from want).»

Verse: She`rda ham kelgan:

«Tagür manig sawimni bilgalaka ay,

Tinur qali atitsa qisraq sani tay».

«Mening so`zimni yetkuz, aqllilarga aytgin, agar toy bolasi ot bo`lsa, otlar qatoriga kirsa, baytal tinadi». «Convey my words and say to the wise ones, that the mare rests when her colt is counted among the horses.»

Lexical analysis: karis- otning yelkasi, yag`rini — withers (kahil)of a horse;

Turkish proverb: «Karis yagri ogulqa qalir». Uzbek translation: «Ot kaftining yag`iri o`g`liga meros qoladi», chunki kift bo`g`inlar to`planadigan joy bo`lib, u yerdagi yag`ir tezda tuzalmaydi. Bu bilan (unday) yag`irdan saqlanishga buyuriladi.

English translation: «The sore of the withers remains (an inheritance) for the son» — since it is the place where the joints are gathered and does no heal quickly. This is coined as advice to protect that part of the body.

References:

  1. Robert Dankoff in collaboration with James Kelly. Compendium of the Turkic dialects (Diwan Lugat at-Turk) — Harvard: Harvard University Printing Office, 1982. – 432 p.
  2. S. M. Mutallibov. Turkiy so`zlar devoni. Devonu lug`otit turk. I tom. — Toshkent: O`zbekiston SSR Fanlar Akademiyasi, 1960. – 512 b.
  3. Hojiyev A., Nurmonov A. Hozirgi o’zbek tili faol so’zlarining izohlilugati. — T.: Sharq, 2001.
  4. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Proverbs. Oxford University Press, 2003. – 364 p.

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