Библиографическое описание:

Рахимова Г. С., Рахматуллаева С. И. The casualties chemilization of agriculture of Fergana Villager. 1950–1985 years // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №11. — С. 1120-1122.



В данной статье раскрыты причин использования химических ядовитых веществ в сельском хозяйствев Ферганской долине, особенно в хлопководстве, загрязнение окружающей среды и вреда причинённое к здоровье людей, технические средств использованные при химическом обработке на основе исторических доказательств.

Ключевые слова: химические вещества, хлопок, почва, вода, воздух, общество, Фергана, Кувасай, Коканд, болезни, эрозия, соление, производство.

Gaining of independence paved the way for studying true history of events which took place in the former colonial regime.

In the XX century Uzbekistan was the main cotton producer of Soviet Union. The monopoly of cotton led to the change of environment. As our president Stated “Our people suffered from cotton monopoly in the 80th” [1].

During Soviet period chemical technologies Used without planning and without testing. The process of chemicalization began in 1960 years. The central government insult make decisions without taking into notice any factors. Chemicalization of agriculture has become a special branch and many research work have been done. We can single out the collection in cotton farming in Uzbekistan.

In this period any research was linked with policy. One of the pioneers of chemicalization of agriculture was I. A. Alimov [2]. He carried research work on chemicalization of agriculture in 1965–1986 years. These research works were devoted such problems as how to protect cotton from different illnesses, rise of cotton harvest by using chemicals.

Scientists and researchers such as N. Aberkulov, A. Tadjibayev [3] carried out research work on the use of chemicals in cotton growing. On the chemicalizaton program of cotton much attention was paid to Olmalik chemical plant, Chirchik electrical-chemical plant. Many methods of chemicalization have been investigated, even, the most poisonous chemicals have been used, in spite of their great harm. Besides historians K. Eshchanov, M. G. Vahobova, L. P. Zotova [4] carred out great propaganda on the use of chemicals in agriculture, they urged to use chemicals on a wide scale. In chemicalization of agriculture K. A. Hasandjanov [5] also carried research work. These abovementioned scientists paid much attention to the profitable part of chemicalization ignoring the harm and damage of chemicals. But researchers E. Bekmetov and A.Akhunova [6] in their research paid attention to the harmful influence of chemicals to environment but it was the period of reconstruction of former Soviet Union and so nobody paid attention to their work.

After gaining independence many Uzbek scientists and historians carry out their research work on the use of chemicals in agriculture in former Soviet period and single out disastrous damage of chemicals to environment. Such scientists as N. Oblamurodov, S. N. Tursunov, A. M. Yuldasheva and many others investigate the negative influence of chemicals to environment [7]. In their monograph N.Oblamuradov and S. N. Tursunov studied the main reasons which led to the catastrophe in agriculture, the disappearing the Aral Sea.

Central government with the intensification of agriculture and cotton farming built many industrial plants for the cotton monopoly.

The central government of Soviet Union tried to obtain maximum profit from cotton farming, so the use of chemicals led to the rise of cotton harvest and quality but in 1970years much disasters could be observed in social life. Even in 1960 years the chemical plants which produce chemical fertilizers were more than 20 [8]. Units, Such as Chirchik electrical– mechanical plant, Kokand and Samarkand phosphore plants. In 1963 in Fergana new chemical plant was built [9]. These plants supplied Uzbek agriculture with chemical fertilizers, defoliants, sulphid acids. The production of chemicals rose and in 1963 reached 1 419 000 tons [10]. Central government required the growth in 1970 4811000 tons, defoliants to 36,9 000 tons [11], the central government urged to high ten production of chemicals.

With the grow the of production and usage of chemicals its causalities and catastrophically damage also grew. The industrial rubbish polluted air, soil and water. The emission of technical chemical waters, dusts and rubbish grew.

On august 1962 the Supreme Soviet of Uzbekistan adopted the resolution on “Preparing cotton fields to cotton picking machines and carrying defoliation work ”On June 22 in 1962 Uzbek SSR adopted resolution on № 441 and according to it the following works had to be carried out:

1. to increase the use of aviation in agriculture.

2. to supply chemical apparatus 04 H- 4,6 all the cotton fields.

3. to form working group on the control of the use of chemicals.

4. to supply with hand labour the fields which is impossible to use tractors and aviation for chemical work.

5. to increase defoliation of cotton leaves.

6. by means of aviation and tractors the chemical fertilizer metilmerkaptophos 30 % pouder was added to mineral fertilizers.

While using aviation chemicals were spread over peoples. While picking cotton hand-lab our was cheap and effective [12], so the government adopted resolutions which mobilized population to cotton picking, Fergana region had to mobilize 160 000, Andijan region 240 000 people into cotton picking company [12]. The peak of geological catastrophe was 1980 years. The death rate among infants rose.

For example, in 1965 in Fergana region 17 children were enrolled with the diagnosis endocrine disease. In 1968 it rose up 346, children with neurosis disease were 115, in Fergana region in Leningrad district 165 children were died by birth. Intestinal diseases increased among children. In Fergana city to 1000 children intestinal diseases percentage was 30,5, in Kokand-22,3, in Khuvasay-38,2, Pop-5,8, Oltiarikh-5,5 [12]. The laboratory investigations show that the reasons of these diseases were chemical substances which were in air, water and soil.

At present in dependent Uzbekistan tries to decrease the use of chemicals I agricultural sphere, carries out multilateral relations with foreign countries, and the following priorities are important:

  1. to invite leading specialists from foreign countries in struggle against harmful insects;

2. to produce chemical fertilizers with low harm.

3. to carry out research in spoiled soils and try to improve its condition.

4. to educate the youth with the ecological knowledge.

5. to organize special training courses in education and to carry out ecological propaganda among peoples.

References:

  1. “Ўзбекистон овози”, 1994 йил 31 март
  2. Алимов И.А. Сельское хозяйство Узбекистана в девятой пятилетке. - Т., 1976; Он же. Химизация сельскохозяйственного производства в центре внимания партийкой организации. В кн.: Руководство компартии Узбекистана интенсификацией сельского хозяйства. - Т, 1978; Он же. Решение продовольственной программы - важная партийная задача. - Т, 1987.
  3. Аберкулов Н. КПСС- организатор развития хлопководства Узбекистана в период зрелого социализма (1959-1970гг.)- Т, 1982; Таджибаев А. Колхозная крестьянство Узбекистана в борьбе за внедрение достижений научно-технического прогресса в хлопководстве(1953-1970гг.)- Т, 1986.
  4. Эшчанов К. Аграрная политика КПСС в условиях развитого социализма и ее социально экономическое значение(на материалах республик Средней Азии)- Т, 1982; Вахабова М.Г, Зотова Л.П. Партийное руководства развитием хлопка- промышленного комплекса в Узбекистане.- Т, 1985.
  5. Хасанджанов К.А. Эффективность средств химии в земледелии. дисс..канд. – Т, 1980.
  6. Бекметов Э. Интенсификация колхозного производства на современном этапе: практика, опыт, проблемы.,- Т., 1987; Ахунов А. Проблемы преодоления торможения в развитии научно-технического прогресса сельского хозяйства. - Т., 1990.
  7. Юлдашев А.М. Ухудшение экологической обстановки в сельских районах Узбекистана. -Т., 1992; Обламурадов Н. Аграрная политика в Узбекистане (1970-1990 гг.) -Т., 1993; Турсунов С.Н. Узбекистан кишлок; хужалигини ривожлантириш йулидаги уринишлар ниятлар ва натижалар. (19461965 йиллар): -Т., 1994 .
  8. Ўз МДА, ф-2579, оп-1, иш-1, варақ-17-18.
  9. Ўша манба, ф-2433, оп-3, д-997,варақ-5.
  10. Ўша манба, д-3,варақ-144.
  11. Ўз МДА, ф-387, оп-39, д-1703, варақ-127.
  12. Фар ДА, ф-1124, оп-7, иш-1052, варақ-202.

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