Библиографическое описание:

Матякубов Х. Х. The studying of the inhabited areas and social-economical culture of Bronze and early Iron Ages around Southern Aral Sea // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №10. — С. 1479-1481.



According to historical data, the spindle. BCE. X-VIII centuries around the South Akcha Darya tributary of Suvyorgan covering the history and culture of Tozabogyop material things Yakkaparson 2 and tier 2 settlements.. The beginning of the seventh century, Darya water to cover the main part Davdan and Daryalik beds as a result of increased water level in the lake Sarykamysh Uzbay resettled tribes around the water basin at the bank. [1]Archaeological objects of ancient Khorezm, gradually developing the culture of farming. [2]According to Ya.G'.G'ulomov Janbag-6 address from the material things in the last verse Suvyorgan of the Bronze Age culture Kaltaminar cultural traditions of occurrence, Tozabogyop caused by external migration of culture in the valley of the South Akcha Darya. [3]

The discovery of monuments of culture Yakkaparson 2 Amirabad result of the study of the materials found in archaeological excavations by B. V. Adrianov and Amirabad culture Periods reconsidered. According to M. A. Itina Amirabad culture mile. BCE. VIII or IX of the spindle. BCE. X-VIII centuries.The first period to explore the culture of the Southern Aral.

According to the results of archaeological research, by building residential housing construction by Amirabad’s does not differ from the hut Tozabogyobs. Tozabogyop period, the average housing area of 40–70, 80–100 square meters (In contrast, only three houses 129–132–140 square meters), according to the places of houses belonging to the culture of Amirabad area of 70 100 square meters (smaller than most 28–38 square meters), the larger of the 136–165 square meters.

Amirabad culture pottery ware hand, depending on their kitchen and household containers can be arranged. Some of the ceramic material of the outer wall are preserved traces of red paint and polished. Variety of drawing styles outside of triangles, curves, «tree» image patterns were tested.Amirabad period of bronze-colored recycled materials. Bronze knife, sickle cycle, supply, needles, arrowheads, and a variety of decorations. Yakkaparson the population engaged in agricultural areas of the addresses were using stone tools in the preparation of stereotypes. Ya.G'.G'ulomovs based on many years of research and a rich archeological materials, since the fundamental work devoted to the history of Khorezm water to maintain its scientific significance. Explains the features of the dynamics of the culture of the Khorezm and irrigated crop. As a result of the archaeological research carried out in the Khorezm region of the important monuments have been discovered and studied. Ya.G'.G’ulomovs forms of irrigated agriculture in the Khorezm region, according to the first Bronze Age body, irrigation facilities during the Amirabad, lime water, which are tributaries of the river based on a wet method of irrigation. S. P. Tolstov and the Bronze Age in the B. V. Adrianov irrigation sub-primitive forms, and South Delta Akcha Darya noted that there are numerous irrigation facilities remains.

According to historical data, the spindle. BCE. X-VIII centuries around the South Akcha Darya tributary of Suvyorgan covering the history and culture of Tozabogyop material things Yakkaparson 2 and tier 2 settlements. BC. BCE. The beginning of the seventh century, the main part of the Amu Darya water dovdir and Daryolik beds Sarykamysh cover the water level in the lake rose and the coast of the basin water in the vicinity of Uzbay tribes came together. Archaeological objects of ancient Khorezm, gradually developing the culture of farming. According to Ya. G'.G'ulomov Janbag – 6 addressfrom the material things in the last verse Suvyorgan of the Bronze Age culture Kaltaminar cultural traditions of occurrence, Tozabogyop culture in the valley of the South Akcha Darya caused by external migrations.

B. V. Adrianov and M. A. Itinas said that, in the valley of the South Akcha Darya crop mph. BCE. Occurred in the middle of the second millennium. Kukcha — Janbaz the period studied around the Bronze Age traces of arable crops and honey, and serve as evidence of this. The period of Soviet historiography source of livestock of the population of the Bronze Age in the Khorezm oasis as reported.The following points support this conclusion:

− Bronze Age tribes are not the same level of socio-economic development;

− Tozabogyobs based on livestock and crop tribes, such as the Eurasian steps widespread;

− Tozabogyobs culture belong to the semi-basements and hand made ceramic vessels,relativelyMiddle Bronze Age cultures in South Asia;studied around the Bronze Age traces of arable crops and honey, and serve as evidence of this;

− The main criteria, Tozabogyobs steppe tribes, a view of the South Aral sea Andronova culture and the culture of the Bronze Age, which should be interpreted as a variant.

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Khorezm oasis of Bronze Age history of irrigation issues reconsidered by the researchers. A. A. Asqarov works S. P. Tolstov implementation of scientific hypotheses and conclusions on the basis of a comparative analysis of the studied, S. P. Tolstovexpressed opinionssome scientific assumptions and conclusions about the rest of the old according to new archaeological data, comments.A. A. Asqarov noted that the coming into existence on the basis of Tozabogyob primordial culture and crop farming, Khorezm culture of the Bronze Age in the land of irrigated agriculture could not develope as «Margiana and Bactria»,basins of the Amu Darya and its riparian areas and reeds, the modern livestock pastures it was very convenient for the development of agriculture, «concluded such». [4]

S. Baratov, the based on new archaeological materials which investigated Meshes cemetery from Khorezm oasis the period of bronze, the archaeological expedition members of Khorezm is reflected in the various periods of the publications of scientific concepts allows implementation a new version. The researchers opinions that Amirabad and Tozabogyaps culture basid agriculture and livestock,difficult to predict that availability of unnatural irrigation facilities in Bronze Age in the South Aral. [5]

In order to substantiate this conclusion S.Baratov give the follawing pionts:

− Tozabogyob and amirobod housing, especially in a small room in the basement This cozy seating areas around the aircraft during the winter, but in the heat of the summer day ertulalarda of experiencing severe, we did not have nearly as possible;

− Tozabogyops and amirobods housing, especially in a small room in the basement This comfortable seating areas around the fire during the winter, but in the heat of the summer day in basement of living severe, nearly possible;

− In Bronze Age couse of main livestock,the lower part of the Amu Darya irrigation facilities have been erected without any necessity. Taking into account the above-mentioned approaches and scientific viewpoints, in our view, they are available in a controversial aspects. For example, the Lower Amu-Darya riparian areas compared to the vast expanse of reeds and livestock as well as hunting can be easy to assume that, in the summer of tozabogyop not the use the basement as a house,but in the lightweight and used to feed the cattle in South Aral sides without any obstacles. Therefore, the tribes of the culture bojyop seasonal migration (Lower Amu Darya — Volga steppes of Kazakhstan — Lower Amu-Darya) is arguable idea Amirabad Tozabogyops and representatives of all the cultures of the immigrants are the problem, which requires a special analysis.

M. A. Itina to the study of the monuments of the Bronze Age in the Khorezm oasis, some of the comments. In addition, the territory of the South Khorezm (Tuyamuyun) published information about the Bronze Age ceramics were determined. M. A. Itina to describe the history of the study of monuments of the Bronze Age in the South Aral Sea. Bojyop culture, the culture of Amirabad XVI BC-XI XI-VIII centuries BC chronology of did some oldest. Janbaz 6 found space on the culture of Suvyorgan ceramics, MA Itinas, the vessels of the period actually Amirabad. Suvyorgan culture, the culture Amirabad rained Kovindi stage. [7] That is why, for many years now turns used in the science of archeology, «Suvyorgan culture» to give up the concept of this culture of Bronze Age archaeological culture of the Khorezm oasis categories, active extra cultures, members were invited to the event. In summary, a note of the following points on the results of the studying of culture of the South Aral Sea for the first s:

− During the first iron period of the Khorezm oasis culture study results are reflected in the special collections of scientific articles and monographs;

− Widely conducted archaeological research carried out in the location of the information available in the published literature of historical monuments, housing, material culture and includes information about the history of water;

− Published during 60–70 years, published monographs Akcha Darya bed Adjacent to the shores of the plains and foothills, ridges rising archaeological monuments erected by the population as a result of archaeological research, based on the regions of the South Aral Sea features step-by-step development of irrigated agriculture, socio-economic and cultural relations, to analyze some of the issues have been.

In our opinion,culture of Suvyorgan South should be recognized as a period of bronze culture in the area, BC BCE In the second half of the second millennium, common in developed Suvyorgan started Mixing and cultural traditions of the Tozabogyop

Indeed, the history of the Bronze Age in the Khorezm oasis, there are some controversial issues and problems studied enough Religious religious beliefs, family and community systems, including problems such as.

It should be noted that, as archaeologists important publications covering topics of archeology. South Aral bronze and early iron-era monuments and the description of the invention (ceramics, bronze, stone and bone tools and materials), and timing issues, material culture, business forms, and others. However, relations of between the Bronze and the early iron-era territorial communities and socio-economic relations, the development of the layout of seed characteristics and social management issues, the article shortly analyzed.

References:

  1. VeinbergB. I. KuyisayCultureintheEarlyIronAgeIntheAmu Daryadelta under Sarikamish // The successes of the Central Asian archeology. — L.: The science, 1975. issue. 3. — С. 42–48.
  2. Matiakubov Kh.Kh. The oldest basins of the Amu Darya natural and geographical conditions and the formation of anthropogenic landscape // The history of material culture. — Samarkand, 2011. # 1. — B. 75–86.
  3. GulyamovYa. G. TheHistory of irrigation from oldest period till present day of Khorezm. — Tashkent: Science, 1957. — S. 51–54.
  4. The same author. The history of Khorezm irrigation. — Tashkent: Science, 1959. – B. 55–56.
  5. AskarovA. Some works of the old history Khorezm // Uzbekistan ethnology: new attitudes and approaches. — 5.Toshkent, 2004. — B. 76–84.
  6. New approaches to the study of the history of ancient Khorezm // History of Uzbekistan — Toshkent, 2007. № 4. — С. 12–14.
  7. that author. The Uzbek publics ethnogenesis and ethnic history. — Tashkent: University, 2007. — b. 44.
  8. Baratov S. problems of archeological research of ancient cultures Khorezm // History of Uzbekistan — Toshknet, 2007. № 4. — S. 24–25.
  9. Itina M. A. Khorezm expedition- main results and perspectives // Culture and art of ancient Khorezm. – М.: Science, 1981. – S. 4–20.

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