Библиографическое описание:

Матякубов Х. Х., Матякубова Ш. Х. The Study of Bronze Culture Around the Southern Area Aral Sea // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №10. — С. 1477-1479.



Since ancient time, the oasis of Khorezm was historical and cultural place occupying both sides of lower flow of Amu Darya river. This area is called «Southern Aral Sea Basin Areas» in geography. According to geographical point of view, southern Aral Sea Basin Area covers current location of Khorezm region, Karakalpakistan and northern part of Turkmenistan. This territory (the oasis of ancient Khorezm) consisted of the steppes, bordering from the north — Ustyurt, from the south Ungizarti Karakum(desert), from the east Kyzylkum sand hills and from the west the steppes of Saryqamyish. Since ancient time, the oasis of Khorezm has been situated around cultural economical region of eastern Caspian Sea, southern Volga, The Ural and central Kazakstan. The development of anthropogenic landscape goes back to the last Paleolithic era. There was natural living condition for people for housing and their life, moreover, geographical conditions and Amu Darya’s springs played an important role on developing peoples’ cultural life.

In the history, the flow of Amu Darya has changed many times. According to scientific assumptions shaped 22 thousand years ago, while the middle of the last Paleolithic, The Amu Darya riverflowed into Aral Sea for the first time. Especially at that time Aqchadarya, delta of the Amu Darya river, appeared. The Delta started from Shurakhan to northern part of current Turkul city and The Sultan Uvays Mountains is called Aqchadarya. Delta flowed to the north crossing Kyzylkum barkhans and its several rivulets poured to Aral Sea.

Due to raising water surface of Amu Darya, it outpoured to the left through Davdan and Daryalik rivulets made a Lake on the Sarykamysh Steppe. [1]Until the end of the 3rd millennium B.C huge amount of Amu Darya water flowed to Sarykamysh, therefore the support of Akcha Darya delta was very well, consequently, there was a lot of lakes and morasses around the delta.

In the 2nd millennium B.C Amu Darya water flow poured to Aral Sea through Akcha Darya. But in different periods (VII — IV B. C., IV — VI and XII — XIV centuries) Amu Darya poured to Sarykamysh too. 1st millennium B.C Modern Delta of the Amu Darya river was shaped. Thus, the low flow of Amu Darya hydro graphy history connected with Akcha Darya, Sarykamysh (the tributaries of Davdan and Daryalik) and the deltas of Aral Sea basin areas. In accordance with archeological researches farming tools were found during archeological researchers, which belong to Paleolithic and Neolithic eras. Moreover, Y. A. Vinagradova could find stone instruments from «Burly — 3» monument and around of The Sultan Uvays Mountains which belong to Paleolithic and middle stone ages. Most of the monuments found in Ustyurt belong to middle stone age and Neolithic era. [2]

Archeologic complexes in Akcha Darya which belongs to Neolithic era are called Kaltaminar Culture. There are Neolithic hunting and fishing dwellings around Sarykamysh and Yukari Uzbay and they say that they belong to IV — III millenniums B. C.

The issue of the culture of theSuvyorgan considered by Researchers works. According to this issue Yu.A.Zadneprovskiys covering the development of the culture of the Bronze Age farming in the south of Central Asia, ceramics, made of potter's wheel, and representatives of the culture of Suvyorgan to move to the south, in the Khorezm oasis, mostly engaged in fishing and hunting and clay manual entry it seems strange to use Between III–II millenniums there appeared bronze dwellings around southern Akcha Darya rivulets. [3] Because of decreasing the surface of the water, Amu Darya could not support Davdan and Daryalik tributaries, Sarykamysh and Uzbay Delta with water and that’s why they ended until the end of VII century. [4] According to the presumption of M. A. Itina, during the epoch of Bronze the water of Amu Darya didn not poured constantly to Sarykamysh and Uzbay rivulet ws not provided with water.

The main territory of Tozabogyobs limited to the broad regional location in South Akcha Daryo waters. In this territory inspected more than 50 public institutions of the Bronze. The characters lacation of them, separated three regional groups. The including groups Janbaz — Kukcha, Angka — Bazarkala and Kavat. Settlings consists of semi-basements ashut houses, searching the area around the old canals and irrigation. For setting along the edge wooden columns of Semi-basements carved deep. The appearance of external Tozabogyops housing rectangular hut a tabernacle form, columns of wood on the sides and top of the frame with a cane on the basis of hidden. These columns of frame made lightweight residential housing system. More than 50 housing ruins studies by archaeological excavations belong Tozabogyobs culture.

Tozabogyobsyops culture makes up the major part of the archaeological materials, hand made pottery. They pans, as mugdishes, the surface is decorated with geometric patterns and stripes. Tozabogyops culture dishes found in the area of the South Ural and Siberian steppes of Kazakhstan looks as Bronze Age pottery.Such similarities determine the origin of these Tozabogyobs relations.

Tozabogyobs culture in monuments made objects by bronze as finding unique, mostly, bronze knives, mowers, a brass mirror, rings and bracelets were found. In addition, agriculture is associated with stone tools (instrument for saw, mowers) rare remnants of grain (barley, wheat, rye) was not found

In M. A. Itina researches there is not given archeological information about “Suvyorgan Culture”. [5] According to S. P. Tolstov Suvyorgan Culture was founded by tribes, moved from (Iran highlands and southern Turkmanistan) to Khorezm. [6] Amirobod Culture occurred out of blending Suvyorgan and Tazabagyap Culture. [7]

BC BCE X-VIII centuries (the Bronze Age in the history of Khorezm) develop a culture of Amirabad around the South Akcha Daryo.This cultural monuments inspected present Beruni and Turtkul regions. Yakkaparson 2 and Kavat 2 settlements carried out archaeological research. [8]

The last Bronze Age regions of the South Aral Sea methods of housing construction was almost unchanged. Amirobods houses had been semi-basements as Tozabogyobs. In Tozabogyobs period, the average housing area consist of 40–70, 80–100 square meters (In contrast, only three houses 129–132–140 square meters), according to the places of houses belonging to the culture of Amirabad area of 70 100 square meters (smaller than most 28–38 square meters), the larger of the 136–165 square meters. [9]

Khorezm archaeological research expedition with the material culture of the Bronze Age in the South Aral Sea has created economic opportunities to learn the basics of the local population.

In conclusion, the results of the South Aral Sea to explore the culture of the Bronze Age can be noted on the following points:

In the late 20th century, 40 to 50 years, according to many publications connections and have verified the location of the monuments found in the archaeological features, housing, material culture, and contains information about the history of the ancient Khorezm irrigation;

− A study published in the 60–70-years of the last century, the land of the coast Akcha Daryo bed studied archaeological monuments of the Southern regions of irrigated agriculture in the Aral Sea on the basis of step-by-step development, social, economic and cultural ties as well as to analyze some of the issues, Amirabad culture Janbaz 7 deny the existence of the memorial site where the houses built from wall;

− S. P. Tolstov and applied science followers considered critical editions of some of the issues of culture Suvyorgan researchers. The given views, Suvyorgan and Tozabogyobs culture the explanation does not correspond to reality as different cultures, and this approach is based on the archaeological materials;

− The beginning of the twenty-first century, the Bronze Age in the Khorezm oasis has become one of the leading agricultural scientific literature on the debate, resulted in the emergence of various theories.

According to A. V. Vinogradov further Kaltaminar Culture materials have similarities between Suvyorgan and Kamishly Culture.If peoples of Suvyorgan had moved from the south of Central Asia to Akcha Darya in the 2nd millennium, it would have been different modifications in the culture of the local population (by population in the south is expected to be applied to cultural and technological achievements, including the specialized craft, ceramics, building knowledge, architecture, raw brick housing construction methods, irrigation facilities).

References:

  1. Kes A. S. The Aral Sea in Holocene // Ethnography and archeology of Central Asia. — М.: Science, 1979. — С. 19.
  2. VinagradovaE.А The first Paleolithic findings from the Sultanuiz // The antiquity and the Middle Age of under the Aral sea. — М.:Ivrilan. Science, 1998. — С. 74–77.
  3. Itina M. A. The history of the steppe tribes. С. 28–29.
  4. Vainberg B. I. The Ethnogeography of Turan in antiquity. VII century. BC. — VIII century. BC — М.: Ivrilan, 1999. — С. 22.
  5. Itina М. А. The history of the steppe tribes of the Southern Aral Sea. С. 199, 205, V-VI.
  6. Tolstov S. P. In the footsteps of ancient Khorezm civilization.С. 78.
  7. Itina М. А. The history of the steppe tribes. С. 147–148.
  8. Itina М. А. The settlements od Yakka-Parsan 2.
  9. Yagodin N. V. The Settlement of Amirabad’s culture Kavat 2 2 // МХЭ. — М., 1963. Вып. 6. — С. 130–140.
  10. Itina M. A. The history of the steppe tribes. С. 199, 205, table. V-VI.

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