Библиографическое описание:

Каримова Ф. The notion of essay and its academic types // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №9. — С. 1279-1281.



Hywel (2003) bifurcated the sub-skills of writing such as descriptive skill (description of people, places and things), narrative skill (narrating stories, incidents, events with proper sequence in chronological order) and expository skill (writing with the purpose to justify, explain, define, classify, compare and contrast).

In writing when we write something we are supported by combining abovementioned sub-skills in order to deliver our opinions to the reader. Especially it is defined by essays which express the whole idea, arguments and criteria of the person. First of all we will define what the essay is.

The term essay comes from Latin word exigere, which means «to examine, test, or (literally) to drive out». It came into English language through French in Middle English. It is concluded that the essence of the academic essay is to encourage students to test or examine their ideas concerning a particular topic. They hate writing because of lack of preparation and confidence. And especially the main reason why they dislike essay writing is it requires the writer to collect a number of skills such as close reading, analysis, comparison and contrast, persuasion, conciseness, clarity, and exposition at the same time. As is evidenced by this list of attributes, there is much to be gained by the student who strives to succeed at essay writing. Based on these ideas we will begin analyzing its various genres.

Kathleen T. Mc Whorter proposes following four types of essay which are mainly used in academic writing.

  1. Theexpositoressay

In this type of essay an issue, theme or idea is explained to our intended audience. The expository essay can also be used to give a personal response to a world event, political debate, football game, work of art and so on.

What are its most important qualities?

Reader’s attention should be kept. So, we should:

− Have a well defined thesis. Start with a thesis statement/research question/statement of intent. Make sure to answer the question or do what we say we set out to do. Do not wander from the topic.

− Provide evidence to back up what we are saying. Support our arguments with facts and reasoning. Do not simply list facts, incorporate these as examples supporting our position, but at the same time make the point as succinctly as possible.

2. The persuasive essay

This is the type of essay where we try to convince the reader to adopt our point of view. Here our argument, idea is the most important. We convince readers to accept our rationale among the others.

What are its most important qualities?

− To have a definite point of view.

− To be aware of intended audience. How can we win them over?

− Our purpose is to convince someone else so we should not overdo the language and should not bore the reader. And that is why we should not keep repeating the points!

− One single topic per paragraph, and natural progression from one to the next.

− To end with a strong conclusion.

3. The analytical essay.

In this type of essay we analyze, examine and interpret such things as an event, book, poem, play or other work of art.

What are its most important qualities?

The analytical essay should have an:

− Introduction and presentation of argument

− The introductory paragraph is used to tell the reader what text or texts will be discussed. Every literary work raises at least one major issue. In the introduction we will also define the idea or issue of the text that we are to examine in our analysis. This is sometimes called the thesis or research question.

− Analysis of the text (the longest part of the essay)

− When we analyze first we should start stating the problem and then we present our argument. The main point of being paid attention here is Stylistic devices. We conclude whether the writer attains his goal or not. In concluding we should show the facts of our argument with samples and judgment.

− Personal response

− Personal response can be both positive and negative. For example if we notice any confusion or misunderstanding we may criticize it. However, it should be based on concrete details and facts

− Conclusion)

− Conclusion should include the final decision between the analyses and the argument.

  1. The argumentative essay.

This is the type of essay where our opinion, theory or hypothesis about an issue is correct or more truthful than those of others. In short, it is very similar to the persuasive essay (see above), but the difference is that we are arguing for our own opinion as opposed to others, rather than directly trying to persuade someone to adopt our point of view.

What are its most important qualities?

− The argument should be focused on a concrete idea.

− The argumentative essay should be based on pros and cons (see below)

− One single topic per paragraph, and natural progression from one to the next.

− The essay should end with a strong conclusion.

Tips for writing argumentative essays:

  1. The argumentative essay has three approaches. The most effective one should be chosen for the argument. Here one should ask himself. Do I find it better to «sell» the argument first and then present the counter arguments and refute them? Or do I prefer to save the best for last?

Approach 1:

− Thesis statement (main argument):

− Pro idea 1

− Pro idea 2

− Con(s) + Refutation(s): these are the opinions of others that the writer disagree with. these opinions must clearly be specified if the aim is to refute them convincingly.

− Conclusion

Approach 2:

− Thesis statement:

− Con(s) + Refutation(s)

− Pro idea 1

− Pro idea 2

− Conclusion

Approach 3:

− Thesis statement:

− Con idea 1 and the refutation

− Con idea 2 and the refutation

− Con idea 3 and the refutation

− Conclusion

  1. Good transition words are significant elements when moving between arguments and most importantly when moving from pros to cons and vice versa. For example:

While I have shown that... other may say

However

Opponents of this idea claim / maintain that …

Nonetheless

but

Those who disagree claim that …

−On the other hand,

This claim notwithstanding

While some people may disagree with this idea...

The above mentioned criteria prove the theory that was accepted by different scholars. Coming out of their opinion given approaches are suggested to implement. They consolidate proficiency of writing skill in essay. All the instructions and suggestions serve to ascend the writing skill in higher levels such as upper-intermediate and advanced. Based on those criteria we can thrive on well-organized and ideally perfect essays.

References:

  1. Successful College Writing 2nd ed. Kathleen T. Mc Whorter
  2. Andersson, B. & Beveridge A. (2007). A guide to assessments and skills in SCCA (2nd ed.). [Booklet]. Perth, WA: Edith Cowan University.
  3. Bruffee K. A. (1993). A short course in writing: Composition, collaborative learning, and constructive reading (4-th ed.). New York, N. Y.: Harper Collins College Publishers.
  4. Martha J. Bianco, Ph.D., 2008.
  5. Angela Koch. Unit for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching
  6. Wilcox, 2002.

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