Библиографическое описание:

Комилова Г. О. Синтаксемы, выраженные сочетаниями с предлогами After и Before при переходных и непереходных глаголах // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №7. — С. 656-658.



Ключевые слова: метод, трансформация, предлог, темпоральность, отмеченность, признак.

Задача данного эксперимента заключается в изучении синтаксико- семантического содержания синтаксических единиц, выраженных предложно- именными сочетаниями с предлогами after и before в позиции зависимого компонента при переходных, а также непереходных глаголах.

Основным методам исследования является лингвистический эксперимент, проведение которого связано с соблюдением грамматической отмеченности предложения, его стилистической нейтральности, с сохранением смыслового тождества исходных предложений и их трансформов. В процессе анализа используются следующие эксперименты- преобразования:

  1. трансформация опущения;
  2. трансформация замены;
  3. трансформация изучаемого предложения в вопросительное;
  4. трансформация вербализации и др.

Темпоральная постериорная синтаксема и её варианты. Эти синтаксемы выражены главным образом сочетаниями существительного, а также местоимения с различными предлогами, в частности, с предлогами after и before. Рассмотрим сначала несколько предложений с различными предложенными сочетаниями:

  1. At noon a thin line of land appeared ahead of them io the, Karth,
  2. With the decision, some of her fear fell away...,
  3. I was just going out to have a drink before dinner,
  4. After dinner she went into the bathroom...

Bсe выделенные сочетания- предлога с существительным характеризуются признаком субстанциальности. Кроме данного категориального признака, указанным элементам присущ синтаксико- семантический признак темпоральности, наличие которого можно доказать, заменяя исследуемое предложное сочетание наречием then:

  1. At noon a thin line of land appeared ahead of them to the North Them a thin line of land appeared ahead of them to the North.
  2. With the decision, some of her fear fell away... — Then some of her fear fell away.
  3. Iwas just going out to have a drink before dinner 1 was just going out to have a drink then.
  4. After dinner she went into the bathroom Then she went into the bathroom.

Однако в содержании сочетания after dinner в последнем предложении, кроме признака темпоральности, содержится еще один синтаксико- семантический признак- признак постериорности. Это можно подчеркнуть с помощью эксперимента- трансформации замены предложного сочетания наречием after;

  1. At noon a thin line of land appeared ahead of them to the North — After some of her fear fell away.
  2. With the decision, some of her fear fell away... — Then some of her fear fell away.
  3. I was just going out to have a drink before dinner — I was just going to have a drink after.
  4. After dinner she went into the bathroom — After she went into the bathroom.

Отрицательная реакция предложений 1,2,3 на этот эксперимент свидетельствует об отсутствии указанного признака постериорности в синтаксико- семантическом содержании темпоральных синтаксем этих предложений. Этот признак присущ только предложному сочетанию с предлогом after поддаются указанному типу преобразования:

  1. That was after the war, wasn’t it? — That was after,....
  2. No man can travel these hills after dark... — No man can travel these hills after.
  3. I could call back after lunch... — I could call back after... (Cp: He knew neither when he spoke nor after.
  4. They might have gone there together after the meeting — They might have gone there together after.

He went to the sunset Library after school... — He went to the sunset Library after.

Темпоральная постериорная синтаксема имеет варианты, выраженные сочетаниями существительного с предлогом after, сочетаниями личных местоимений, наречий, а также числительного с тем же предлогом.

Лексическую базу субстантивного варианта составляют существительные, обозначающие.

а) трапезу, названия блюд, различных вещеетв. Tea,meal, breakfast, dinner, supper, lunch, food, bread, meat и. т.п.)

  1. After breakfast Andrew wont out by himself for an hour.
  2. After tea Philip Hepton and Sulalia Burnese di ecussed their gloomy eircumetancee.
  3. Play those dieke I out after dinner

б) болезнь (fever, succent. consumption, decease, temperature,pneumonia)

  1. I was not twenty- one and as weak as a cat after the fever.

в) состояниепогодыявленияокружающейсреды.(storm, rain, cold, gloom, heat, fog, lightning, dark);

  1. After the dust: storms and lust rain clouds white and hard from behind Hungarra peak drifted across the sky, like pieces of wadding soattered and vanished,
  2. No man can travel these hills after dark...,
  3. The light was dim, and after the brilliant sunshine for a while he could see nothing

г) знаменательныедаты, религиозныепраздники, праздники(New Years, holiday, Bank Holiday, wedding, celebration, labour Day, feast. April Revolution, Easter, Christmas, vacation).

  1. It’s the third day after Christmas..,
  2. After Hew Years they left,
  3. He had just returned to chambers after a holiday in the country,
  4. After the wedding 1 walked hame with Venera under the shade of her black umbrella.

д) отрезки времени, времена года, дни недели ит.д.(year, month, week, week-end. fortnight, evening, night, morning):

  1. After that day he dropped altogether out of sight...;
  2. It palls after the first few nights;
  3. If I Let this chance slip, after all these months. I’m a fool;
  4. I’m returning hame after seven years.

е) события (war, battle, struggle, interval, period, pause, silence, attempt, event, honeymoon, marriage, wedlock, funeral, burial, experience, effort, absence, verdict, fact, past, survey, pass, operation, surgery, practice, adventure, expedition, walk, journey, tour);

  1. After enormous difficulty Mr. Smeeth succeded in feeling and lighting his marning pipe of T. Beneden’s oven...;
  2. After several experiences, white Fang never stopped without orders,
  3. When i was awake after the operation 1 had not been away,
  4. After two efforts, they stood still panting,
  5. Аfter our Saturday- morning excursion in the Portobello Road very... I would accompany Kathreen to her aunts house in Kent for a Long week- end,
  6. Nathan and his wife got so rich that after the war they died of over eating...,
  7. After an interval a similar part was enacted on the classroom...,
  8. It so his son and he mentioned this aspiration of Winifred’s.

ж) чувства, внешность человека, характер(satisfaction, surprise, impression, spirit, age, heart, breath);

  1. Madam, he said, after a little hesitation...,
  2. And, after a momentary bewilderment, the hurt of it struck her to the heart,
  3. Minnie, after the good spirits Carrie manifested at first, expected a fair report,
  4. After the initial frowns, however, they mixed without grumbling especially O. J. Berman...;

з) конкретные действия, собрание, разговор, интервью,лекции(meeting, work, show, party, conference, edition, play, game, word, consultation, conversation, talk, report, lecture, question);

  1. After a few morning consultations with the pleasant prospect of no surgery in the evening Andrew went on his round,
  2. After these quest talks. Nichael understood, much better than before, the profession of politics.
  3. After two or three questions, to which he got no answer...
  4. It was after the business meeting and things were going socially with a him.
  5. after the performance you will find your gallery seat in my dressing room.

и) людей (people, God, quest, figure, son, struggler, Dickens,);

  1. After his Green Street guest Michael had gone down Piccadilly...,2.But the first to arrive after Berry were Blake and Farrow, 3.After Sort we beheld the starveling stiry- once...;

Местоименные вариантами темпоральной синтаксемы являются:

After me:

If nothing happened to Mary after me...;...I should have has a son to carry on the business after me;

After him;

Mrs Hurstwood could have echoed the words after him openmouthed;... and Dan nere’ll take a gun after him;

... and after him Big Eddil Stover, whose squint- eyed search of our hiding places reminded me;

After you;

... sir, shall your son Arthur be king after you?;

After it;

Other countries must seem so flat after it;

After us;

... to see the engine, released long after us, came bussing down alone...;

After then.

... if we have Metaxists back upon us after them, Now the rest of the wedding party alight, and enter after them,

Адвербиальными вариантами темпоральной поетериорной синтаксемы могут быть:

After tomorrow.

After tomorrow his Tuesday expeditions to town would have to be abandoned,

After unwin ds of S.

After upwards of an hour it had the bliddy pit almost at a standstill... /GPD, 35/,

After to-day.

High himself would milk, most Likely after to-day, After to-dav he would never probably see her again,

After long.

I made inquires but it was like looking for a lost umbrells, fruitless after so long;... and one wanted to fill one's lungs, to greet the stars back in their places after so long,

(the) day after to- morrow.

And, Michscl, George Packaman is giving a party day after tomorrow at Chez Victor; 1 hope the day after tomorrow;

Thereafter.

Thereafter he visited the resort of Fitzgerald and Moys in Adams Street...;... and thereafter his respect and ardour were increased;

Hereafter.

You can Just leave that in hereafter, he remarked;

Farewell- we shall meet hereafter;

Afterwards.

... and afterwards he must have been a pretty sure he’d made a mistake,

Afterwards, when things are changed it would mean a good deal to you,

In winter John bought a hound, but sold it soon afterwards and got himself a concertina.

Вариантами темпоральной постириорной синтаксемы, выраженными с помощью числительных, также могут быть:

After Nu.

It was after twelve and the weekend was in sight;

They arrived soon after ten;

After Nu o’clock.

The three reached the Museum Hotel after one o’clock.

It was but a few minutes after ten o'clock....

He’s here after two o’clock.

Литература:

  1. ABBY Lingvo12 [Электронный ресурс].
  2. Cambridge UP, 1971. — 86 pp. Blokh M. Y. A Course in Theoretical English Grammar / M. Y. Blokh. — M.: Высшаяшкола, 1983. — 350 с.
  3. Boadi L. A. Reciprocal verbs and symmetric predications / L. A. Boadi // Journal of West African languages, 1975. — Vol. 10. — P. 55–77.
  4. Halliday M. A. K. An Introduction to Functional Grammar / M.A. K. Halliday. — London — Baltimore: E. Arnold, 1985. — 387 pp.
  5. Рузи Киямов. Лингвистический анализ предложных сочетаний в современном английском языке. Карши, Изд-во Насаф.2009.

Обсуждение

Социальные комментарии Cackle