Библиографическое описание:

Каипбергенова Д. О. Cognitive factors: systematically forgetting in second language learning // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №3. — С. 832-834.

 

Blessed are those who give without remembering and take without forgetting.

Elizabeth Bibesco

 

During learning foreign languages, learners came across some difficulties. One of the largest problem in learning second language is forgetting systematically. What is its consequence? You can get the answer while you are reading this article.

Many students have poor memory problem. They have difficulty remembering instructions, phone numbers, dates, places or directions. They have just been given, what was just said during conversations, class lectures and discussions and what they just read. Different scholars provided various definitions of forgetting. According to Cubeli etymologically, the word ‘to forget’ derives from the Old English word forgytan, which is composed by for (letting go) and gientan (to grasp) (2010, p35)

Tulving defined forgetting as “the inability to recall something now that could be recalled on an earlier occasion.

Davis defined the strong form at forgetting as complete loss from storage by saying that forgetting is “the theoretical possibility that refers to a total erasure of the original memory can not be recalled, no matter what technique are used to aid recall.

Now we live in high technology century. When the computer was invented, it was created like a people’s memory. Now the memories of every computer remember its files only 6 or 12 months.Then it begins to forget them quietly like our memory. We also remember only necessary recollections. During learning another language learners have difficulties in remembering new words.

According to Rebecca L. Oxford memory strategies fall into four sets:

1. Creating mental linkages: we can easily remember by grouping, associating and placing new words into a context.

For example:

Grouping(groups can be based on type of word. Words about weather — rainy, sunny, hot, cold, warm, chilly.)

Words about occupation — doctor, teacher, plumber, worker, dancer

Associating (to create associations in memory associations can be between two things)

Beautiful flower, sly as a fox, innocent as a lamb.

(Proper name) Aziz — Oasis, Solange –So long.

Placing new word into context. (Involve using all possible clues, including the context, the meaning)

UN –United Nations

NBU- National Bank of Uzbekistan.

Memory strategies reflect very simple principles, such as arranging things in order, making association and receiving. These principles all involve meaning.

2. Applying images and sounds: four strategies are included here: using imagery, using keywords, semantic mapping and representing sounds in memory. These all involve remembering by means of visual images or sounds.

Using imagery –Student should imagine a picture of an object, words or expressions.

For example:Red or yellow ripe and juicy fruit. One can easily imagine an apple.

Semantic mapping–Making an arrangement of words into a picture.

 

 

Using keywords — Remembering a new word by using auditory and visual links. F.ex I usually go to the library. The word usually helps us to guess the time and keywords usually in the Present Simple.

Representing sounds in memory –Remembering new language information according to its sound. F.ex meow-meow (cat), oink-oink (pig)

Although memory strategies can be powerful contributors to language learning. There are some tips of remembering effectively.

  1.                Learn new word with their synonyms by heart. So we cannot come across difficulties in speaking and writing. It helps us to write good essay too. There are some words the meaning of that is similar or different. Sometimes we cannot use any word instead of its synonyms. F.ex the word “beautiful” and “handsome” are synonym. But we should use “beautiful” for girls and “handsome” for boys.
  2.                Learn new words with their antonyms by heart. This strategy is also useful for remembering well. The antonyms comes our memory fast if we learn them, such as beautiful-ugly, fat-slim, happy-unhappy
  3.                Use the new words in sentence after learning them by heart. F.ex you learn the word “motivation” by heart. Motivation is the process of arousing and sustaining behavior. When you meet this word in any text, you memorize not only the meaning of the word, but also this sentence too.
  4.                Learn new words with their variation by heart. F. ex you have learnt the word “injure” by heart. This word is a verb, that is why you should try to find its adjective, adverb and noun variation. It is adjective variation is injured. Some words have not all variation. This word has no adverb version. But it has also noun for thing and ideas. It is injury.
  5.                Learn new words with another word, which has similar pronunciation. This word should be regarding your native language or another language. For example, you learn by heart the word “interesting”. This word is similar pronunciation the word “интересный” in Russian. This method helps you remember well. If you learn German, English can help you to learn it easily. Because they are similar to each other. For instance:
  6.                 

German

English

Gut

Good

Alt

Old

Nev

New

Vater

Water

Und

And

Lernen

To learn

Apfel

Apple

Guten morgen

Good morning

Yung

Young

Freund

Friend

Hier

Here

Familie

Family

Ist

Is

Klasse

Class

Hous

House

Kommen

To come

Trinken

To drink

Haben

To have

 

As a conclusion, forgetting means failure at any time to recall and experience, when attempting to do, or to perform an action previously learned. If the learners use these methods, they can easily remember. They should also work on themselves. If they do not do it, they begin to forget quickly like computer memory.

 

References:

 

  1.    Ausebel. Systematic forgetting (1968) (p. 108)
  2.    Anderson, M. C. Bjork, E. L. Bjork, Retrieval induced forgetting, Evidence for a recall specific mechanism. (2000)
  3.    Brown H. D. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. (San Francisco: Longman, 2nd edition) (2001)
  4.    Cabelli R., A new taxonomy of memory and forgetting. (New York, p 35) (2010)
  5.    Rebecca L. Language learning strategies. (Oxford, 1990) (p 38)
  6.    Jack C. Richards, Theodore S. Rogers, Approaches and methods in language teaching. (Cambridge University Press, 2006)
  7.    Adrian Doff, Teach English (Cambridge University Press, 2002)

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